Nuno Fontes

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Zeolite molecular sieves very commonly are used as in situ drying agents in reaction mixtures of enzymes in nonaqueous media. They often affect enzyme behavior, and this has been interpreted in terms of altered hydration. Here, we show that zeolites can also have dramatic acid-base effects on enzymes in low water media, resulting from their cation-exchange(More)
Salt hydrates very frequently are utilized as in situ water activity buffers in reaction mixtures of enzymes in nonaqueous media. In addition to buffering water activity, there is evidence that salt hydrates also often affect initial rates in other ways. This has been generally overlooked or thought to be related to water transfer effects. Here we show that(More)
We studied the effect of pressure up to 300 bar on the catalytic efficiency of subtilisin Carlsberg suspended in compressed propane, near-critical ethane, near-critical carbon dioxide and tert-amyl alcohol, at constant temperature and fixed enzyme hydration. Increasing pressure lowered the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme in all the solvents, resulting in(More)
We report on the performance of cross-linked enzyme microcrystals (CLECs) of subtilisin Carlsberg in supercritical fluids (SC-fluids). The catalytic activity of CLECs in SC-ethane was found to be 2- to 10-fold greater than in hexane under the same conditions, using CLECs dried by propanol washing. Air-dried CLECs and lyophilized powders showed much lower(More)
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