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Oligomerization in the heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 family has been extensively documented both in vitro and in vivo, although the mechanism, the identity of the specific protein regions involved and the physiological relevance of this process are still unclear. We have studied the oligomeric properties of a series of human Hsp70 variants by means of(More)
Previous studies relating hormone and cytokine concentrations in follicular fluid to oocyte fertilizability were flawed by the uncertainty about the actual oocyte maturity status at the time of recovery and by the possible contribution of the male factor to failures of conventional in-vitro fertilization. This is the first study in which oocyte maturity was(More)
Here, we use single-molecule techniques to study the aggregation of α-synuclein, the protein whose misfolding and deposition is associated with Parkinson's disease. We identify a conformational change from the initially formed oligomers to stable, more compact proteinase-K-resistant oligomers as the key step that leads ultimately to fibril formation. The(More)
Oligomers of alpha-synuclein are toxic to cells and have been proposed to play a key role in the etiopathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. As certain missense mutations in the gene encoding for alpha-synuclein induce early-onset forms of the disease, it has been suggested that these variants might have an inherent tendency to produce high concentrations of(More)
The misfolding of intrinsically disordered proteins such as α-synuclein, tau and the Aβ peptide has been associated with many highly debilitating neurodegenerative syndromes including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Therapeutic targeting of the monomeric state of such intrinsically disordered proteins by small molecules has, however, been a major(More)
AIMS Protein aggregation and oxidative stress are both key pathogenic processes in Parkinson's disease, although the mechanism by which misfolded proteins induce oxidative stress and neuronal death remains unknown. In this study, we describe how aggregation of alpha-synuclein (α-S) from its monomeric form to its soluble oligomeric state results in aberrant(More)
The partial unfolding of human lysozyme underlies its conversion from the soluble state into amyloid fibrils observed in a fatal hereditary form of systemic amyloidosis. To understand the molecular origins of the disease, it is critical to characterize the structural and physicochemical properties of the amyloidogenic states of the protein. Here we provide(More)
Helicobacter pylori flavodoxin is the electronic acceptor of the pyruvate-oxidoreductase complex (POR) that catalyzes pyruvate oxidative decarboxilation. Inactivation of this metabolic route precludes bacterial survival. Because flavodoxin is not present in the human host, substances interfering electronic transport from POR might be well suited for(More)
Flavodoxins, noncovalent complexes between apoflavodoxins and flavin mononucleotide (FMN), are useful models to investigate the mechanism of protein/flavin recognition. In this respect, the only available crystal structure of an apoflavodoxin (that from Anabaena) showed a closed isoalloxazine pocket and the presence of a bound phosphate ion, which posed(More)
The misfolding and aggregation of proteins into amyloid fibrils characterizes many neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. We report here a method, termed SAVE (single aggregate visualization by enhancement) imaging, for the ultrasensitive detection of individual amyloid fibrils and oligomers using single-molecule(More)