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Oncolytic viral therapy provides a promising approach to treat certain human malignancies. These vectors improve on replication-deficient vectors by increasing the viral load within tumors through preferential viral replication within tumor cells. However, the inability to efficiently propagate throughout the entire tumor and infect cells distant from the(More)
Nano-size particles show promise for pulmonary drug delivery, yet their behavior after deposition in the lung remains poorly understood. In this study, a series of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent nanoparticles were systematically varied in chemical composition, shape, size and surface charge, and their biodistribution and elimination were quantified in rat(More)
Diffusive transport of macromolecules and nanoparticles in charged fibrous media is of interest in many biological applications, including drug delivery and separation processes. Experimental findings have shown that diffusion can be significantly hindered by electrostatic interactions between the diffusing particle and charged components of the(More)
We describe the synthesis of magnetic and fluorescent silica microspheres fabricated by incorporating maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) nanoparticles (MPs) and CdSe/CdZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) into a silica shell around preformed silica microspheres. The resultant approximately 500 nm microspheres have a narrow size distribution and show uniform incorporation(More)
The potential of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in various biomedical applications, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), sensing, and drug delivery, requires that their surface be derivatized to be hydrophilic and biocompatible. We report here the design and synthesis of a compact and water-soluble zwitterionic dopamine sulfonate(More)
Urinary supersaturation triggers lithogenic crystal formation. We developed an alternative test, designated calcium oxalate crystallization index (COCI), to distinguish nephrolithiasis patients from healthy individuals based on their urinary crystallization capability. The effect of urine volume, oxalate, phosphate, citrate, potassium, and sodium on COCI(More)
Although computer simulation and cell culture experiments have shown that elongated spherical particles can be taken up into cells more efficiently than spherical particles, experimental investigation on effects of these different shapes over the particle-membrane association has never been reported. Therefore, whether the higher cellular uptake of an(More)
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