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Rituximab improves outcomes for persons with lymphoproliferative disorders and is increasingly used to treat immune-mediated illnesses. Recent reports describe 2 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and 1 with rheumatoid arthritis who developed progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) after rituximab treatment. We reviewed PML case(More)
Cholesterol is eliminated from neurons by oxidization, which generates oxysterols. Cholesterol oxidation is mediated by the enzymes cholesterol 24-hydroxylase (CYP46A1) and cholesterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1). Immunocytochemical studies show that CYP46A1 and CYP27A1 are expressed in neurons and some astrocytes in the normal brain, and CYP27A1 is present in(More)
Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM) is a chronic lymphoproliferative disorder within the spectrum of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma characterized by proliferation of plasma cells, small lymphocytes, and plasmacytoid lymphocytes. Central nervous system involvement is very rare (Bing-Neel [BN] syndrome). We present the case of a 62-year-old woman previously(More)
Secretion and progressive cerebral accumulation of beta-amyloid peptides (A beta), which derive by endoproteolytic ('amyloidogenic') processing of beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP), are felt to represent collectively an early and necessary event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. APP amyloidogenic processing can occur via secretory or(More)
The Presenilins are part of the gamma-secretase complex that is involved in the regulated intramembrane proteolysis of amyloid precursor protein and other type I integral membrane proteins. Nicastrin, Pen-2, and Aph1 are the other proteins of this complex. The Presenilins probably contribute the catalytic activity to the protease complex. However, several(More)
BACKGROUND The natural history of cerebral aneurysms derived from metastatic spread of cardiac myxomas is not well known, and their management presents many dilemmas. METHODS Case report and literature review. RESULTS An 18-year-old man presented with an intraparenchymal hemorrhage several months after resection of an atrial myxoma. Angiography showed(More)
Secretion and progressive cerebral accumulation of beta-amyloid peptides (Abeta) derived by endoproteolytic ("amyloidogenic") processing of beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) represent collectively an early and necessary event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. We previously demonstrated that secretion of the neurotoxic species Abeta42 increases(More)
OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE Prevention of rebleeding is the most important aspect of the management of hemorrhagic moyamoya disease, because rebleeding causes significant morbidity and mortality. CLINICAL PRESENTATION A 26-year-old male patient with a history of moyamoya disease since the age of 3 years and multiple strokes was in a semicomatose state at(More)
We describe a case of cerebellar pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) occurring in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). The histomorphology of this uncommon glial (astrocytic) neoplasm is discussed. The occurrence of this tumor within the posterior fossa is extremely rare. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a cerebellar PXA in a(More)