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PURPOSE Previous reports indicate that discordance between CYP2C19 genotype and enzyme function occurs in up to 37 % of cancer patients with a range of solid tumours. The aim of this study was to determine whether this acquired loss of function in hepatic CYP2C19 activity also occurs in patients with haematological malignancy. METHODS CYP2C19 genotype was(More)
A series of novel 5-arylidene-2-thioxoimidazolidin-4-ones were investigated as inhibitors of the lymphocyte-expressed pore-forming protein perforin. Structure-activity relationships were explored through variation of an isoindolinone or 3,4-dihydroisoquinolinone subunit on a fixed 2-thioxoimidazolidin-4-one/thiophene core. The ability of the resulting(More)
CYP2C19 is a drug-metabolising enzyme involved in the metabolism of a number of chemotherapeutic agents including cyclophosphamide. Variants of the CYP2C19 gene result in a loss of function polymorphism, which affects approximately 3% of the Caucasian population. These individuals are poor metabolisers (PM) of a wide range of medications including(More)
There is considerable inter-ethnic variability in the incidence of CYP2C19 genetic poor metabolisers ( var / var ). About 3 per cent of Caucasians are CYP2C19 var/var . By contrast, an extremely high incidence (70 per cent) is observed in the Melanesian island of Vanuatu. The colonisation of the Pacific Islands is believed to have involved migration through(More)
5-(Aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide (CB 1954), a promising anti-tumour compound, is associated with clinical hepatotoxicity. We have previously demonstrated that human liver preparations are capable of endogenous 2- and 4-nitroreduction of CB 1954 to generate highly potent cytotoxins. The present study initially examined the in vitro metabolism of CB(More)
The activation of the antimalarial drug proguanil (PG) to the active metabolite cycloguanil (CG) has been evaluated in a panel of 18 subjects. These subjects had previously been screened and classified as mephenytoin poor (PMm) or extensive metabolisers (EMm) and sparteine poor (PMs) or extensive metabolisers (EMs). Five subjects had the phenotype PMm/EMs,(More)
Diets containing wheat bran (WB) protect against cancers of the colon or breast in rats, and may be beneficial in humans. In a previous study of rats treated with the carcinogen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), inclusion of 10% wheat bran in the diet led to an apparent reduction in IQ metabolites but not of intact IQ in plasma. In the present(More)
The inhibitory effect of the isoflavonoids genistein and equol on cytochrome P450 activities has been investigated. Genistein and equol inhibited the high capacity component of p-nitrophenol (CYP2E1 substrate) metabolism in liver microsomes from acetone-induced mice with IC50 values of approximately 10 mM and 560 microM, respectively (cf.(More)
AIMS The role of CYP pharmacogenetics in the bioactivation of cyclophosphamide is still controversial. Recent clinical studies have suggested a role for either CYP2C19 or CYP2B6. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of these pharmacogenes. METHODS We used a combined in vitro-in vivo approach to determine the role of these pharmacogenes in the(More)
The metabolism of arachidonic acid results in the production of prostaglandins (PGs), which are involved in the initiation of labour at term and preterm. The fetal membranes are a source of pro-inflammatory cytokines which promote increased PG biosynthesis via increased release of arachidonic acid and its conversion to biologically active metabolites such(More)