Nozomi Tomita

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In this review, we have tried to elucidate substrates for the execution of normal gait and to understand pathophysiological mechanisms of gait failure in basal ganglia dysfunctions. In Parkinson’s disease, volitional and emotional expressions of movement processes are seriously affected in addition to the disturbance of automatic movement processes, such as(More)
Quadrupeds vary their gaits in accordance with their locomotion speed. Such gait transitions exhibit hysteresis. However, the underlying mechanism for this hysteresis remains largely unclear. It has been suggested that gaits correspond to attractors in their dynamics and that gait transitions are non-equilibrium phase transitions that are accompanied by a(More)
Obstacle avoidance during locomotion is essential for safe, smooth locomotion. Physiological studies regarding muscle synergy have shown that the combination of a small number of basic patterns produces the large part of muscle activities during locomotion and the addition of another pattern explains muscle activities for obstacle avoidance. Furthermore,(More)
A walking motion is established by feedforward control for rhythmic locomotion and feedback control for adapting to environmental variations. To identify the control variables that underlie feedback control, uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis has been proposed and adopted for analyzing various movements. UCM analysis searches the controlled variables by(More)
Human quiet standing is accompanied by body sway. The amplitude of this body sway is known to be larger than would be predicted from simple noise effects, and sway characteristics are changed by neurological disorders. This large sway is thought to arise from nonlinear control with prolonged periods of no control (intermittent control), and a nonlinear(More)
Internal fixation is widely used in the operative treatment of fractures, but various problems, such as local osteoporosis, may occur when living bone is fixed with a rigid metal plate. We propose a new method of immobilisation, which we have termed “cushioned plate fixation”, in an attempt to solve some of these problems. Cushioned plate fixation involves(More)
Locomotion in biological systems involves various gaits, and hysteresis appears when the gaits change in accordance with the locomotion speed. That is, the gaits vary at different locomotion speeds depending on the direction of speed change. Although hysteresis is a typical characteristic of nonlinear dynamic systems, the underlying mechanism for the(More)
Human walking behaviour adaptation strategies have previously been examined using split-belt treadmills, which have two parallel independently controlled belts. In such human split-belt treadmill walking, two types of adaptations have been identified: early and late. Early-type adaptations appear as rapid changes in interlimb and intralimb coordination(More)