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Defining new approaches for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis is an important priority. Recently, measurement of endothelial function in patients has emerged as a useful tool for atherosclerosis research. Risk factors are associated with impaired endothelial function, and clinical syndromes relate, in part, to a loss of endothelial control of(More)
Adipose tissue secretes proteins referred to as adipokines, many of which promote inflammation and disrupt glucose homeostasis. Here we show that secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (Sfrp5), a protein previously linked to the Wnt signaling pathway, is an anti-inflammatory adipokine whose expression is perturbed in models of obesity and type 2 diabetes.(More)
BACKGROUND Brachial artery endothelial function is impaired in individuals with atherosclerosis and coronary risk factors and improves with risk reduction therapy. However, the predictive value of brachial artery endothelial dysfunction for future cardiovascular events is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS We preoperatively examined brachial artery vasodilation(More)
It is established that the adipocyte-derived cytokine adiponectin protects against cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, but the effect of this adipokine on macrophage polarization, an important mediator of disease progression, has never been assessed. We hypothesized that adiponectin modulates macrophage polarization from that resembling a classically(More)
OBJECTIVE Sedentary lifestyle increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Vascular dysfunction contributes to atherogenesis and has been linked to insulin resistance. METHODS AND RESULTS We measured insulin sensitivity by glucose tolerance test and vascular function by ultrasound and venous occlusion plethysmography in 20 healthy subjects(More)
Aerobic exercise training improves endothelial vasomotor function in the coronary circulation of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), an effect that has been attributed to local repetitive increases in shear stress on the endothelium. To study the effects of exercise on endothelial function in the peripheral circulation, we used vascular ultrasound(More)
CONTEXT Formation of nitric oxide-derived oxidants may serve as a mechanism linking inflammation to development of atherosclerosis. Nitrotyrosine, a specific marker for protein modification by nitric oxide-derived oxidants, is enriched in human atherosclerotic lesions and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) recovered from human atheroma. OBJECTIVES To determine(More)
OBJECTIVE Inflammatory activity in fat tissue has recently been implicated in mechanisms of insulin resistance and obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in innate immune responses and recent studies implicate the TLR pathway in mechanisms of inflammation and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to examine(More)
The effective action of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (EDNO) is impaired in patients with atherosclerosis. This impairment has been attributed in part to increased vascular oxidative stress. EDNO action is improved by administration of ascorbic acid, a water-soluble antioxidant. Ascorbic acid is a potent free-radical scavenger in plasma, and also(More)
BACKGROUND Loss of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (EDNO) contributes to the clinical expression of coronary artery disease (CAD). Increased oxidative stress has been linked to impaired endothelial vasomotor function in atherosclerosis, and recent studies demonstrated that short-term ascorbic acid treatment improves endothelial function. METHODS AND(More)