Norton William Milgram

Learn More
Old, middle-aged, and young dogs were compared on discrimination and reversal learning and on acquisition of a delayed-nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS) test of recognition memory. DNMS acquisition was acquired more rapidly by young dogs. Reversal deficits were found between aged mixed-breed dogs and young beagles, but not between old and young beagles. Aged(More)
1. Aged dogs display many of the cognitive impairments associated with aging and dementia. 2. Aged dogs, like humans, display a wide range of individual variability in cognitive functioning (i.e., different cognitive functions decline at different rates in aged dogs). 3. Different categories of aged canines can be identified on the basis of(More)
The effectiveness of two interventions, dietary fortification with antioxidants and a program of behavioral enrichment, was assessed in a longitudinal study of cognitive aging in beagle dogs. A baseline protocol of cognitive testing was used to select four cognitively equivalent groups: control food-control experience (C-C), control food-enriched experience(More)
We assayed levels of lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl formation, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity and both oxidized and reduced glutathione to study the link between oxidative damage, aging and beta-amyloid (Abeta) in the canine brain. The aged canine brain, a model of human brain aging, naturally develops extensive diffuse deposits of human-type(More)
Several studies converge on the idea that executive processes age earlier than other cognitive processes. As part of a larger effort to investigate age-related changes in executive processes in the dog, inhibitory control was measured in young, middle-aged, old, and senior dogs using size discrimination learning and reversal procedures. Compared to young(More)
Advanced age is accompanied by cognitive decline indicative of central nervous system dysfunction. One possibly critical causal factor is oxidative stress. Accordingly, we studied the effects of dietary antioxidants and age in a canine model of aging that parallels the key features of cognitive decline and neuropathology in humans. Old and young animals(More)
The aged canine displays many features that make it an excellent model for studying the progression of pathology in brain aging and linking these findings to learning, memory and other cognitive functions. Canines develop extensive beta-amyloid deposition within neurons and their synaptic fields, which appears to give rise to senile plaques. These plaques(More)
It is well known that beta-amyloid accumulates abnormally in Alzheimer's disease; however, beta-amyloid's relationship to cognitive dysfunction has not been clearly established and is often confounded by the presence of neurofibrillary tangles. We used canines to investigate the relationship between beta-amyloid accumulation and cognitive function in an(More)
Young, middle-aged, and old beagle dogs were tested on several visual-discrimination tasks: reward- and object-approach learning, object discrimination and reversal, long-term retention of a reversal problem, and a size-discrimination task. Beta-amyloid accumulation in the entorhinal, prefrontal, parietal, and occipital cortices was quantified using(More)
Visuospatial learning and memory impairments are an early marker for age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. Similar to humans, aged dogs show visuospatial learning and memory deficits (). One hundred and nine beagle dogs ranging between 0.25 and 11.99 years were tested on a visuospatial delayed non-matching to position (DNMP) task to better(More)