Norman Wendell Todd

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The position and shape of the jugular bulb are undependable, and thus can add difficulty to temporal bone surgery. The present study addresses the hypothesis that position and shape of the jugular bulb correlate with the extent of temporal bone pneumatization. Systematic study was done in 25 unilateral cadaver specimens. Pneumatization was determined using(More)
Debate continues regarding theories of the control of temporal bone pneumatization. The "hereditary theory" holds that mastoid size is independent of status of the mesotympanum. The "environmental theory" holds that the size of the mastoid air cell system is determined by the degree of pathological involvement of the middle ear during childhood: that is, an(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Imaging a cochlear implant with CT is challenging because of implant-induced artifacts, anatomic cochlear variations, and lack of standard terminology for cochlear anatomy. The purposes of this project were to determine whether the cochlear implant tip was more accurately located on oblique CT reformations than on standard images, to(More)
The "lateral angle," the angle with which the posterior wall of the internal auditory canal meets the posterior fossa plate, is arguably wider in females (>45 degrees) than males (<45 degrees). Not previously addressed, however, are repeatability of angle determination, and whether the extent of temporal bone pneumatization is a confounder. Forty-one adult(More)
BACKGROUND Although a transtympanic electrode is commonly used for electrocochleography and electrically evoked auditory brainstem response, the variability of responses among healthy subjects is wide. The manubrium is the typical guidepost for electrode placement. This study addresses the hypothesis that electrode position relative to the round window(More)
BACKGROUND Although the determinates of paranasal sinus development and sinusitis are not well defined, a candidate factor is blockage of the choana. HYPOTHESIS Maxillary sinuses ipsilateral to unilateral choanal atresia are comparatively small and have more evidence of sinusitis than do the contralateral sinuses. DESIGN Retrospective. SETTING(More)
The anatomy of the anterior epitympanic space is complex and relatively unfamiliar to the surgeon. The size of the space is unpredictable. From the surgeon's perspective, we studied the bony anatomy of the anterior epitympanic space in 35 cadavers. There was an impressive variability of bony openness into the anterior mesotympanum; the openness was(More)
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