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To investigate rate-limiting factors for glutathione and phytochelatin (PC) production and the importance of these compounds for heavy metal tolerance, Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) was genetically engineered to overexpress the Escherichia coli gshI gene encoding gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-ECS), targeted to the plastids. The gamma-ECS(More)
Soybean plants (Glycine max [L.] Merr var Amsoy 71) were grown in growth chambers with high-phosphorus (high-P) and low-phosphorus (low-P) culture solutions. Low-P treatment reduced shoot growth significantly 7 days after treatment began. Root growth was much less affected by low-P, there being no significant reduction in root growth rate until 17 days had(More)
Thlaspi caerulescens has a remarkable ability to hyperaccumulate Zn from soils containing mostly nonlabile Zn. The present study shows that rhizosphere microbes play an important role in increasing the availability of water-soluble Zn in soil, thus enhancing Zn accumulation by T. caerulescens. The addition of bacteria to surface-sterilized seeds of T.(More)
Mercury (Hg), especially in organic form, is a highly toxic pollutant affecting plants, animals, and man. In plants, the primary target of Hg damage is the chloroplast; Hg inhibits electron transport and photosynthesis. In the present study, chloroplast genetic engineering is used for the first time to our knowledge to enhance the capacity of plants for(More)
The effects of Mg deficiency on the photosynthesis and respiration of sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L. cv. F58-554H1) were studied by withholding Mg from the culture solution and by following changes in CO(2) and water vapor exchange of attached leaves. Leaf blade Mg concentration decreased from about 1200 to less than 200 meq kg(-1) dry matter without change(More)
Sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L. cv F58-554H1) were cultured hydroponically for 2 weeks in growth chambers with two levels of orthophosphate (Pi) supplied in half strength Hoagland solution. Low-P plants were supplied with 1/20th of the Pi supplied to control plants. With low-P treatment, the acid soluble leaf phosphate and total leaf P decreased by about 88%.(More)
A major goal of phytoremediation is to transform fast-growing plants with genes from plant species that hyperaccumulate toxic trace elements. We overexpressed the gene encoding selenocysteine methyltransferase (SMT) from the selenium (Se) hyperaccumulator Astragalus bisulcatus in Arabidopsis and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). SMT detoxifies(More)
To elucidate plant mechanisms involved in molybdenum (Mo) sequestration and tolerance, Brassica spp. seedlings were supplied with molybdate, and the effects on plant physiology, morphology, and biochemistry were analyzed. When supplied with (colorless) molybdate Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) seedlings accumulated water-soluble blue crystals in their(More)
Earlier work from our laboratory on Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) identified the following rate-limiting steps for the assimilation and volatilization of selenate to dimethyl selenide (DMSe): (a) uptake of selenate, (b) activation of selenate by ATP sulfurylase, and (b) conversion of selenomethionine (SeMet) to DMSe. The present study showed that(More)
The physiological characteristics of the extremely boron (B)-tolerant plant species, Puccinellia distans, were compared with those of the moderately tolerant Gypsophila arrostil, two species collected from a B-mining area of Eskişehir, Turkey. Boron was supplied to plants hydroponically at B concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 50 mg B/L for G. arrostil, and(More)