Norman L Carter

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Negative impacts of noise exposure on health and performance may result in part from "learned helplessness," the syndrome of deficits typically produced by exposure to uncontrollable events. People may perceive environmental noise to be uncontrollable, and several effects of noise exposure appear to parallel "learned helplessness" deficits. In the present(More)
We gave 944 young people (aged 16 to 20 years) pure-tone audiometry, electroacoustic impedance tests, and ear, nose and throat examination. We questioned them about their histories of exposure to occupational and recreational noise. The data do not support the view that there is wide-spread hearing loss caused by exposure to amplified music in young people(More)
This study was designed to investigate the effect of presentations of intermittent noise differing in predictability on cardiovascular functioning during task performance. Under a quiet condition and three conditions of intermittent noise, measures of blood pressure, heart rate (interbeat interval), and heart rate variability (variance, successive(More)
BACKGROUND A growing body of empirical evidence suggests that organisational factors are more important than classroom specific issues in determining teacher morale. Accordingly, it is necessary to have available measures that accurately assess morale, as well as the organisational factors that are likely to underpin the experience of morale. AIM Three(More)
257 3rd-year apprentices were given ear, nose and throat examination, electroacoustic impedance tests and audiometry. Their eye colour was also recorded. Average hearing levels of otologically normal left ears were poorer at 4 kHz (p less than 0.05) for apprentices with eye colours indicating no melanin pigmentation of the iris than for apprentices with(More)
General measures of reaction to noise, which assess the respondent's perceived affectedness or dissatisfaction, appear to be more valid and internally consistent than more narrow measures, such as specific assessment of noise annoyance. However, the test-retest reliability of general and specific measures has yet to be compared. As a part of the large-scale(More)
The Real Ear Attenuation at Threshold (REAT) of E-A-R (slow recovery) from earplugs was determined, using three methods of presentation of the test tones during a single fitting of the earplug. The three presentation methods were (a) sound-field listening; (b) TDH49 earphone mounted in the shell of a circumaural earmuff; and (c) TDH49 earphone in a Model 51(More)
A field study was carried out to study the effect of firing the British L118/9 195 mm howitzer (Hamel gun) on the hearing of crewmen wearing EAR earplugs. Two guns and gun crews were placed 7 m apart, each gun firing 40 rounds during each of 2 successive days. Bekesy type audiometry was carried out before and after firing and was also used to measure the(More)
A pilot study of the effect of firing the L118/119 British light gun on the heart rate and blood pressure of crewmen who were wearing EAR ear-plugs was carried out. The firing took place on two successive days, with a higher (louder) charge being used on the second day. Each day 40 rounds were fired from each of two guns which were placed 7 m apart. The(More)
An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of the level of predictability of intermittent noise on performance on a visual vigilance task. Under a quiet condition and three intermittent noise conditions, subjects (Ss) carried out a 55-min task where they were required to detect a change in the brightness of one element of a visual display. The(More)