Norman I. Badler

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People are all around us. They inhabit our home, workplace, entertainment, and environment. Their presence and actions are noted or ignored, enjoyed or disdained, analyzed or prescribed. The very ubiquitousness of other people in our lives poses a tantalizing challenge to the computational modeler: people are at once the most common object of interest and(More)
We describe an implemented system which <italic>automatically</italic> generates and animates conversations between multiple human-like agents with appropriate and synchronized speech, intonation, facial expressions, and hand gestures. Conversation is created by a dialogue planner that produces the text as well as the intonation of the utterances. The(More)
In this paper we develop a set of inverse kinematics algorithms suitable for an anthropomorphic arm or leg. We use a combination of analytical and numerical methods to solve generalized inverse kinematics problems including position, orientation, and aiming constraints. Our combination of analytical and numerical methods results in faster and more reliable(More)
Simulating the motion of realistic, large, dense crowds of autonomous agents is still a challenge for the computer graphics community. Typical approaches either resemble particle simulations (where agents lack orientation controls) or are conservative in the range of human motion possible (agents lack psychological state and aren't allowed to 'push' each(More)
Human movements include limb gestures and postural attitude. Although many computer animation researchers have studied these classes of movements, procedurally generated movements still lack naturalness. We argue that looking only at the psychological notion of gesture is insufficient to capture movement qualities needed by animated charactes. We advocate(More)
For an animated human face model to appear natural it should produce eye movements consistent with human ocular behavior. During face-to-face conversational interactions, eyes exhibit conversational turn-taking and agent thought processes through gaze direction, saccades, and scan patterns. We have implemented an eye movement model based on empirical models(More)
are still a distant fantasy, researchers across a wide range of disciplines are beginning to work together toward a more modest goal—building virtual humans. These software entities look and act like people and can engage in conversation and collaborative tasks, but they live in simulated environments. With the untidy problems of sensing and acting in the(More)
An articulated figure is often modeled as a set of rigid segments connected with joints. Its configuration can be altered by varying the joint angles. Although it is straight forward to compute figure configurations given joint angles (forward kinematics), it is more difficult to find the joint angles for a desired configuration (inverse kinematics). Since(More)
Humans use gestures in most communicative acts. How are these gestures initiated and performed? What kinds of communicative roles do they play and what kinds of meanings do they convey? How do listeners extract and understand these meanings? Will it be possible to build computerized communicating agents that can extract and understand the meanings and(More)
This paper reports results from a program that produces high quality animation of facial expressions and head movements as automatically as possible in conjunction with meaning-based speech synthesis, including spoken intonation. The goal of the research is as much to test and define our theories of the formal semantics for such gestures, as to produce(More)