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This study investigated the link between expressive phonological impairments, phonological awareness, and literacy. Previous investigations of literacy skills in children with speech impairments have given mixed results; here we considered whether presence of additional language impairments or severity of the speech impairment was an important prognostic(More)
Some recent studies have found a relation between the number of siblings 3-4-year-old children have and their performance on false belief tasks. 2 experiments reported here examine a variety of factors in children's social environments, including daily contact with peers and adults as well as the numbers of their siblings, on a battery of false belief(More)
Two experiments were directed at investigating the relationship between response selection and execution in typewriting, and specifically the extent to which concurrent processing takes place. In a Stroop paradigm adapted from [Logan, G. D., & Zbrodoff, N. J. (1998). Stroop-type interference: Congruity effects in colour naming with typewritten responses.(More)
Three-year-olds usually fail to recall a previous false belief once they have discovered the true state of affairs. The failure is so dramatic that researchers have treated it as a case of functional retrograde amnesia. We found in a series of studies that the memory trace is indeed available but is inaccessible under traditional testing procedures. We also(More)
When does a writing system emerge out of children's drawing to separate (a) script processing and production from (b) picture processing and production? And does one system's activation help or hinder the other system's operation? Children 4-12 years of age wrote repeated Os and Vs and drew matching shapes, in the contexts of script and of pictures. The(More)
The brain has evolved a division of labour amongst component systems which link different sorts of processing with precise actions. Debate is over centralized versus decentralized control at different processing levels, from cognitive systems to motor-control systems. With simultaneous activation of alternative expert systems which link (a)(More)
There is debate over how the integration of non-verbal quantifying and verbal counting relates to the representation of number principles. A stringent representational test would be one in which a child obeyed a number principle where it ran counter to a characteristic procedure. We devised a test relying on the uniqueness principle for using evidence from(More)
Cardinal numbers serve two logically complementary functions. They tell us how many things are within a set, and they tell us whether two sets are equivalent or not. Current modelling of counting focuses on the representation of number sufficient for the within-set function; however, such representations are necessary but not sufficient for the equivalence(More)
When preschoolers overcome persistent error, subsequent patterns of correct choices may identify how the error had been overcome. Children who no longer misrepresented a ball rolling down a bent tube as though it could only fall vertically, were asked sometimes to approach and sometimes to avoid where the ball landed. All children showed requisite(More)