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AIMS To determine the relative risk (RR) of non-fatal injury associated with alcohol consumption in a series of emergency departments (EDs), possible effect modifiers and the impact of contextual variables on differences across sites. DESIGN The case-crossover method was used to obtain RR estimates of the effect of alcohol on non-fatal injuries.(More)
AIMS The aim of this study was to examine recent research studies published from 2000 to 2008 focusing on availability of alcohol: hours and days of sale and density of alcohol outlets. METHODS Systematic review. RESULTS Forty-four studies on density of alcohol outlets and 15 studies on hours and days of sale were identified through a systematic(More)
This paper is based on data using similar methods collected from patients at 30 emergency rooms (ERs) in six countries. These data were analyzed with the goal of determining whether alcohol is a likely cause of violence through an application of criteria outlined by Bradford Hill. Analyses were conducted by comparing various measures of alcohol involvement(More)
This paper examines recent developments in Canada and the United States and the role of commercial interests in alcohol-related policies bearing on taxes, outlet density, advertising, counter-advertising, health messages and prevention. Case-study material is drawn from published papers, project reports, government documents and newspaper accounts. The main(More)
AIMS To study international and within country differences with regard to views by the general public on alcohol policy topics, describe associations with socio-demographic characteristics and drinking practices, and contrast opinions with variations in actual policies. DESIGN, SETTING, SUBJECTS Large-scale cross-sectional household surveys were conducted(More)
OBJECTIVES Although it is well known that people with alcohol dependence are at a markedly elevated risk for suicide, much less is known about the role of acute alcohol use in suicidal behaviours. The primary aims of this epidemiological study were to assess the prevalence and factors associated with acute alcohol intoxication among 57 813 suicide decedents(More)
OBJECTIVES We explored age, gender, and racial/ethnic differences with alcohol use and firearms, hanging or asphyxiation, and poisoning methods of suicide. METHODS We analyzed data for 37,993 suicide decedents aged 18 years and older from the 2005-2010 National Violent Death Reporting System database. Multinomial logistic regressions examined associations(More)
Based on self-administered face-to-face interviews conducted in 1992-93 with 524 members of the Punjabi community in Peel, near Toronto, this study investigates the factors associated with alcohol use in the community. Results from alcohol and other drug surveys in Ontario are used for comparison between the two samples regarding drinking and(More)
Trends in public opinion about 11 possible alcohol policy initiatives are analysed in probability surveys of adults in the United States and in Ontario in 1989, 1990 and 1991. In both sites, public opinion is fairly conservative on alcohol policies, with majorities favoring either the status quo or decreased availability on such dimensions as tax levels,(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the impact of usual drinking patterns and related problems on the acute use of alcohol in injury. METHOD The impact of quantity and frequency of drinking, alcohol problems and dependence symptoms on admission to the emergency room (ER) for an alcohol-related injury (based, separately, on a positive blood alcohol concentration [BAC](More)