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  • Spyros A. Kalams, Philip J. R. Goulder, +4 authors Bruce D. Walker
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of virology
  • 1999 (First Published: 1 August 1999)
  • Therapeutic suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication may help elucidate interactions between the host cellular immune responses and HIV-1 infection. We performed aContinue Reading
  • Christian Brander, Kelly Hartman, +8 authors Spyros A. Kalams
  • Biology, Medicine
  • The Journal of clinical investigation
  • 1998 (First Published: 1 June 1998)
  • Despite detailed analysis of the HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response by various groups, its relation to viral load and viral sequence variation remains controversial. We analyzedContinue Reading
  • Spyros A. Kalams, Susan P Buchbinder, +6 authors Bruce D. Walker
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of virology
  • 1999 (First Published: 1 August 1999)
  • Cellular immune responses are thought to be an important antiviral host defense, but the relationship between virus-specific T-helper and cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses has not been defined.Continue Reading
  • Christian Brander, P. O'Connor, +10 authors David T. Scadden
  • Biology, Medicine
  • The Journal of infectious diseases
  • 2001 (First Published: 15 July 2001)
  • Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) recognize and kill virus-infected cells and contribute to immunologic control of viral replication. For many herpesviruses (e.g., Epstein-Barr and cytomegalovirus),Continue Reading
  • Christian Brander, Otto O Yang, +13 authors Bruce D. Walker
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of virology
  • 1999 (First Published: 1 December 1999)
  • Immune escape from cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses has been shown to occur not only by changes within the targeted epitope but also by changes in the flanking sequences which interfere withContinue Reading
  • Mohamed Elrefaei, Chris R. Baker, Norman G. Jones, David R. Bangsberg, Huyen Cao
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of immunology
  • 2008 (First Published: 1 June 2008)
  • Mechanisms leading to the observed immune dysregulation in HIV-1 infection are not well understood. HIV-specific IL-10-positive CD8(+) T cells are increased in advanced HIV disease. We haveContinue Reading
  • Mohamed Elrefaei, Candace M. Burke, +4 authors Huyen Cao
  • Biology, Medicine
  • AIDS research and human retroviruses
  • 2010 (First Published: 1 March 2010)
  • CD4(+) T cell dysfunction in HIV-1 infection is associated with increased CTLA-4 and TGF-beta expression. In this study we described a population of TGF-beta-positive CD4(+) T cells with multiple HIVContinue Reading