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Spontaneous action potentials in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are necessary for normal circadian timing of behavior in mammals. The SCN exhibits a daily oscillation in spontaneous firing rate (SFR), but the ionic conductances controlling SFR and the relationship of SFR to subsequent circadian behavioral rhythms are not understood. We show that daily(More)
Melanopsin has been proposed as an important photoreceptive molecule for the mammalian circadian system. Its importance in this role was tested in melanopsin knockout mice. These mice entrained to a light/dark cycle, phase-shifted after a light pulse, and increased circadian period when light intensity increased. Induction of the immediate-early gene c-fos(More)
Decades of studies have shown that eliminating circadian rhythms of mammals does not compromise their health or longevity in the laboratory in any obvious way. These observations have raised questions about the functional significance of the mammalian circadian system, but have been difficult to address for lack of an appropriate animal model. Surgical(More)
Ocular light sensitivity is the primary mechanism by which the central circadian clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), remains synchronized with the external geophysical day. This process is dependent on both the intensity and timing of the light exposure. Little is known about the impact of the duration of light exposure on the(More)
Sleep has been functionally implicated in brain energy homeostasis in that it could serve to replenish brain energy stores that become depleted while awake. Sleep deprivation (SD) should therefore lower brain glycogen content. We tested this hypothesis by sleep depriving mice of three inbred strains, i.e., AKR/J (AK), DBA/2J (D2), and C57BL/6J (B6), that(More)
We hypothesized that a function of sleep is to replenish brain glycogen stores that become depleted while awake. We have previously tested this hypothesis in three inbred strains of mice by measuring brain glycogen after a 6h sleep deprivation (SD). Unexpectedly, glycogen content in the cerebral cortex did not decrease with SD in two of the strains and was(More)
Body temperature (T(b)) was recorded at 10 min intervals over 2.5 years in female golden-mantled ground squirrels that sustained complete ablation of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCNx). Animals housed at an ambient temperature (T(a)) of 6.5 degrees C were housed in a 12 hr light/dark cycle for 19 months followed by 11 months in constant light. The circadian(More)
Chronic circadian dysfunction impairs declarative memory in humans but has little effect in common rodent models of arrhythmia caused by clock gene knockouts or surgical ablation of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). An important problem overlooked in these translational models is that human dysrhythmia occurs while SCN circuitry is genetically and(More)
Light can induce arrhythmia in circadian systems by several weeks of constant light or by a brief light stimulus given at the transition point of the phase response curve. In the present study, a novel light treatment consisting of phase advance and phase delay photic stimuli given on 2 successive nights was used to induce circadian arrhythmia in the(More)