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In mammals, the increased generation of prostaglandins (PG) during the onset of inflammatory responses and activation of immune cell types has been attributed to the induction of a novel cyclo-oxygenase (COX) isoform, termed COX-2, which is distinct from the well-characterized constitutive activity (COX-1). Goldfish (Carassius auratus) macrophages exposed(More)
Three distinct sub-populations of macrophages derived from goldfish kidney leukocyte cultures were generated and characterised. The sub-populations designated as R1, R2 and R3-type macrophages had distinct morphological, cytochemical and flow cytometric profiles, and also differed in their anti-microbial functions after activation with macrophage activation(More)
The high sequence diversity and heterogeneity observed within species or genotypes of Cryptosporidium requires phylogenetic approaches for the identification of novel sequences obtained from the environment. A long-term study on Cryptosporidium in the agriculturally-intensive South Nation River watershed in Ontario, Canada was undertaken, in which 60(More)
A real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) assay was developed for detecting and quantifying Escherichia coli in water samples from agricultural watersheds. The assay included optimization of DNA extraction and purification from water samples, and Q-PCR amplification conditions using newly designed species-specific oligonucleotide primers(More)
Recent molecular evidence suggests that different species and/or genotypes of Cryptosporidium display strong host specificity, altering our perceptions regarding the zoonotic potential of this parasite. Molecular forensic profiling of the small-subunit rRNA gene from oocysts enumerated on microscope slides by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency method 1623(More)
We developed nucleic acid dye staining methodology for untreated, heat-treated and chemically inactivated C. parvum oocysts. The nucleic acid staining was compared to in vitro excystation and animal infectivity using split samples of oocysts. Among the nucleic acid stains tested, SYTO-9, hexidium and SYTO-59 stained the oocysts consistently, and the(More)
AIMS To assess the removal of viruses through the multiple steps of wastewater treatment in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant in Alberta, Canada. METHODS AND RESULTS Samples were collected after each of the five treatment steps for a period of 16 months. The amount of viruses and their infectivity were analysed using real-time quantitative(More)
Practical pre-analytical and analytical procedures were developed and validated for detection of enteric viruses in three water matrices. Both RNA viruses (norovirus, coxsackievirus, echovirus, and rotavirus) and DNA virus (adenovirus 41) were included in the study. The NanoCeram 90mm laminated disc with electropositive filter and procedures of filtration,(More)
Macrophages are immune cells that play a pivotal role in the detection and elimination of pathogenic microorganisms. Macrophages possess a variety of surface receptors devoted to the recognition of non-self by discriminating between host and pathogen-derived structures. Recognition of foreign microorganisms by the macrophage ultimately results in(More)
Over a seven-year period (2004-2010) 1095 water samples were obtained from the South Nation River basin at multiple watershed monitoring sites (Ontario, Canada). Real-time PCR using Bacteroidales specific markers was used to identify the origin (human (10% prevalence), ruminant (22%), pig (~2%), Canada goose (4%) and muskrat (7%)) of fecal pollution. In(More)