Norman C. Leppla

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The pupal parasitoids, Spalangia cameroni Perkins and Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders, can be purchased for biological control of house flies Musca domestica L. and stable flies Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae). Little is known about the odors involved in host-seeking behavior of these two species, so odors associated with house flies(More)
Cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché), had a circadian rhythm of locomotion that peaked during the last 2 h of the photophase and declined to a lower level that was maintained throughout the scotophase. Activity was lowest during the first 8 h of photophase. The circadian rhythm of these fleas was not affected by an ultrasonic pest control device.
Observations in the laboratory and in the field indicated that maleAnticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner), the velvetbean caterpillar (VBC), are attracted to conspecific courting males. Male VBC subsequently were found to be attracted to extracts of male abdominal tips including the extrudable hairpencils. The active chemical in these extracts was identified as(More)
House flies, Musca domestica Linnaeus, and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), are common pests on horse farms. The successful use of pupal parasitoids for management of these pests requires knowledge of seasonal fluctuations and biology of the flies as well as natural parasitism levels. However, these dynamics have not been(More)
Release of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as biological control agents for house flies and stable flies in livestock confinements has had variable success. In part, this may reflect a lack of knowledge regarding the optimal distance to be used between parasitoid release stations. In the current study, we assessed the effect of linear distance(More)
Concerns about potentially irreversible non-target impacts from the importation and release of entomophagous biological control agents (BCAs) have resulted in increasingly stringent national import requirements by National Plant Protection Organizations worldwide. However, there is a divergence of opinions among regulators, researchers, environmentalists,(More)
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