Norman C. Duke

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Mangrove ecosystems are threatened by climate change. We review the state of knowledge of mangrove vulnerability and responses to predicted climate change and consider adaptation options. Based on available evidence, of all the climate change outcomes, relative sea-level rise may be the greatest threat to mangroves. Most mangrove sediment surface elevations(More)
[1] Mangrove forests are highly productive but globally threatened coastal ecosystems, whose role in the carbon budget of the coastal zone has long been debated. Here we provide a comprehensive synthesis of the available data on carbon fluxes in mangrove ecosystems. A reassessment of global mangrove primary production from the literature results in a(More)
Mangrove species are uniquely adapted to tropical and subtropical coasts, and although relatively low in number of species, mangrove forests provide at least US $1.6 billion each year in ecosystem services and support coastal livelihoods worldwide. Globally, mangrove areas are declining rapidly as they are cleared for coastal development and aquaculture and(More)
Mangroves are often described as a group of plants with common features and common origins based mostly on their broad distributional patterns, together with an erroneous view of comparable abilities in long-distance dispersal. However, whilst mangroves have common needs to adapt to rigorous environmental constraints associated with regular seawater(More)
Allozyme variation in species of the mangrove genus Avicennia was screened in 25 populations collected from 22 locations in the Indo-West Pacific and eastern North America using 11 loci. Several fixed gene differences supported the specific status of Avicennia alba, A. integra, A. marina, and A. rumphiana from the Indo-West Pacific, and A. germinans from(More)
We investigated the restoration trajectories in vegetation and soil parameters of monospecific Rhizophora mucronata stands planted 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 17, 18, and 50 years ago (restored system). We tested the hypothesis that the changes in vegetation characteristics, with progressing mangrove age, are related to the changes in soil characteristics. The(More)
Mangroves are key components of coastal ecosystems in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. However, the patterns and mechanisms of modern distribution of mangroves are still not well understood. Historical vicariance and dispersal are two hypothetic biogeographic processes in shaping the patterns of present-day species distributions. Here we(More)
Herbicides, particularly diuron, were correlated with severe and widespread dieback of the dominant mangrove, Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. var. eucalyptifolia (Val.) N.C. Duke (Avicenniaceae), its reduced canopy condition, and declines in seedling health within three neighbouring estuaries in the Mackay region of NE Australia. This unusual(More)
Turnover within both mangrove and terrestrial forests is driven by standdevelopment in conjunction with factors influencing tree death andreplacement at various temporal and spatial scales. Development interrestrial forests appears comparable with that in mangroves but turnoverseems to differ considerably between these broad forest types. The mostimportant(More)