Norman A. Johnson

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Natural populations often experience the weakening or removal of a source of selection that had been important in the maintenance of one or more traits. Here we refer to these situations as 'relaxed selection,' and review recent studies that explore the effects of such changes on traits in their ecological contexts. In a few systems, such as the loss of(More)
From literature data on 116 taxa crosses involving 46 species of frogs, we found a positive correlation between degree of divergence (measured as Nei's genetic distance, D) and degree of postzygotic isolation. In anurans, hybrid sterility appears to evolve more quickly than inviability, which is consistent with the conclusions of other studies that involved(More)
We have analyzed the sterility associated with introgressions of the distal one-fourth of the X chromosome from either Drosophila mauritiana or Drosophila sechellia into the genome of Drosophila simulans using a series of visible and DNA markers. Because in Drosophila hybrids, male sterility is usually complete and is often tightly linked with each of(More)
Review and framework articles, which are commonly used to synthesize the research literature on a topic area can be important tools for advancing the state of knowledge in a field of inquiry. However, the appraisal of, and the distinction between, survey review and framework articles are often difficult because of the common focus on analyzing a substantial(More)
Hybrid incompatibility (including sterility, lethality, and less extreme negative effects) interests evolutionary biologists because of its role in speciation as a reproductive isolating barrier. It also has unusual genetic properties, being mainly due to interactions between at least two genes. Recent studies have identified some of the interacting genes(More)
A general pattern of animal hybridization, known as Haldane's rule, is that the XY (ZW) sex is more severely affected in its viability or fertility than the XX (ZZ) sex. Recent evidence suggests that three different forces have shaped this pattern: (1) the X chromosome and autosomes are in greater disharmony in the XY sex; (2) evolution of hybrid male(More)
Regulatory genetic pathways are ubiquitous in organisms and play a central role in the realization of the phenotype during development. We explored the proposition that these pathways can provide a plausible source of the epistatic variation that has been implicated in the evolution of postzygotic reproductive isolation. We modeled gene regulation as a(More)
In this study, we address the question of whether there exist major genes that cause complete male sterility in the interspecific hybrids of Drosophila and, if they do, how these genes may be characterized at the molecular level. Our approach is to introgress small segments of the X chromosome from Drosophila mauritiana (or Drosophila sechellia) into(More)