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Circular dichroism (CD) is an excellent tool for rapid determination of the secondary structure and folding properties of proteins that have been obtained using recombinant techniques or purified from tissues. The most widely used applications of protein CD are to determine whether an expressed, purified protein is folded, or if a mutation affects its(More)
Human liver extracts show two major bands with aldehyde dehydrogenase (Aldehyde:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.2.1.3) activity via starch gel electrophoresis at pH 7.0. Both bands have been purified to apparent homogeneity via classical chromatography combined with affinity chromatography on 5'-AMP-Sepharose 4B. The slower migrating band, enzyme 1, when assayed(More)
Circular dichroism (CD) is an excellent spectroscopic technique for following the unfolding and folding of proteins as a function of temperature. One of its principal applications is to determine the effects of mutations and ligands on protein and polypeptide stability. If the change in CD as a function of temperature is reversible, analysis of the data may(More)
Tropomyosin is an alpha-helical coiled-coil protein that aligns head-to-tail along the length of the actin filament and regulates its function. The solution structure of the functionally important N terminus of a short 247-residue non-muscle tropomyosin was determined in an engineered chimeric protein, GlyTM1bZip, consisting of the first 19 residues of rat(More)
The sequences of coiled coils are characterized by a repeating heptad of amino acids, abcdefg, in which the a and d residues are generally hydrophobic and form the interface between the two alpha-helices. In this study, rat and chicken alpha-tropomyosins (alpha-TMs) have been used as models to determine whether the effects of mutations on the stability of(More)
Tropomodulin 1 (Tmod1) is a approximately 40-kDa tropomyosin binding and actin filament pointed end-capping protein that regulates pointed end dynamics and controls thin filament length in striated muscle. In vitro, the capping affinity of Tmod1 for tropomyosin-actin filaments (Kd approximately 50 pm) is several thousand-fold greater than for capping of(More)
Tropomyosins (TMs) are highly conserved, coiled-coil, actin binding regulatory proteins found in most eukaryotic cells. The amino-terminal domain of 284-residue TMs is among the most conserved and functionally important regions. The first nine residues are proposed to bind to the carboxyl-terminal nine residues to form the "overlap" region between(More)
Regulation of actin filament dynamics underlies many cellular functions. Tropomodulin together with tropomyosin can cap the pointed, slowly polymerizing, filament end, inhibiting addition or loss of actin monomers. Tropomodulin has an unstructured N-terminal region that binds tropomyosin and a folded C-terminal domain with six leucine-rich repeats. Of(More)