Norma J. Greenfield

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Circular dichroism (CD) is an excellent tool for rapid determination of the secondary structure and folding properties of proteins that have been obtained using recombinant techniques or purified from tissues. The most widely used applications of protein CD are to determine whether an expressed, purified protein is folded, or if a mutation affects its(More)
The crystal structure at 2.0-A resolution of an 81-residue N-terminal fragment of muscle alpha-tropomyosin reveals a parallel two-stranded alpha-helical coiled-coil structure with a remarkable core. The high alanine content of the molecule is clustered into short regions where the local 2-fold symmetry is broken by a small (approximately 1.2-A) axial(More)
Fifteen percent of the mutations causing familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are in the troponin T gene. Most mutations are clustered between residues 79 and 179, a region known to bind to tropomyosin at the C-terminus near the complex between the N- and C-termini. Nine mutations were introduced into a troponin T fragment, Gly-hcTnT(70-170), that is(More)
Circular dichroism (CD) is an excellent spectroscopic technique for following the unfolding and folding of proteins as a function of temperature. One of its principal applications is to determine the effects of mutations and ligands on protein and polypeptide stability. If the change in CD as a function of temperature is reversible, analysis of the data may(More)
Tropomyosin is a coiled-coil protein that binds head-to-tail along the length of actin filaments in eukaryotic cells, stabilizing them and providing protection from severing proteins. Tropomyosin cooperatively regulates actin's interaction with myosin and mediates the Ca2+ -dependent regulation of contraction by troponin in striated muscles. The N-terminal(More)
Tropomyosin is an alpha-helical coiled-coil protein that aligns head-to-tail along the length of the actin filament and regulates its function. The solution structure of the functionally important N terminus of a short 247-residue non-muscle tropomyosin was determined in an engineered chimeric protein, GlyTM1bZip, consisting of the first 19 residues of rat(More)
The sequences of coiled coils are characterized by a repeating heptad of amino acids, abcdefg, in which the a and d residues are generally hydrophobic and form the interface between the two alpha-helices. In this study, rat and chicken alpha-tropomyosins (alpha-TMs) have been used as models to determine whether the effects of mutations on the stability of(More)
Tropomodulin 1 (Tmod1) is a approximately 40-kDa tropomyosin binding and actin filament pointed end-capping protein that regulates pointed end dynamics and controls thin filament length in striated muscle. In vitro, the capping affinity of Tmod1 for tropomyosin-actin filaments (Kd approximately 50 pm) is several thousand-fold greater than for capping of(More)
Helical instability induced by gly residues in the transmembrane domain (TMD) of G protein, the fusion protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), was speculated to aid in the later steps of the fusion process, because G protein with ala's substituted for the two TMD gly's was inactive (Cleverley, D. Z., and Lenard, J. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S.(More)