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Leptin has been shown to regulate the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, acting primarily through the STAT3 pathway triggered through the binding of leptin to the long-chain isoform of the leptin(More)
Startle is a fast response elicited by sudden acoustic, tactile, or visual stimuli in a variety of animals and in humans. As the magnitude of startle response can be modulated by external and(More)
Dogs are highly sensitive to sound stimuli, especially fireworks, firearms, and thunder, and therefore these sounds are used as models of stress reactivity in dogs. Companion and laboratory dogs may(More)