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Thymic T cell development is dependent on a specialized epithelial microenvironment mainly composed of cortical and medullary thymic epithelial cells (TECs). The molecular programs governing the differentiation and maintenance of TECs remain largely unknown. Wnt signaling is central to the development and maintenance of several organ systems but a specific(More)
We addressed whether vascularization of the thymus anlage depends on Foxn1 expression. In the thymus anlagen of wild-type mice, CD31(+) endothelial cells are initially observed between epithelial cells on embryonic day (Ed)12.5 and form luminal structure on Ed13. VEGF are produced in epithelial cells and mesenchymal cells which invaginate in the epithelial(More)
Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions have essential roles in thymus organogenesis. Mesenchymal cells are known to be required for epithelial cell proliferation. However, the contribution of mesenchymal cells to thymic epithelial cell differentiation is still unclear. In the present study, we have investigated the roles of mesenchymal cells in functional(More)
It is known that selected populations of lymphoid cells migrate into and from the adult thymus through blood vessels at the cortico-medullary junction and in the medulla. Here, we show that in the perivascular spaces (PVS) of mice surrounding large blood vessels, CD117-positive hematopoietic progenitor cells, CD4 single-positive (SP) and CD8SP T cells are(More)
Immunoreactive substance P (ir SP)-containing neurons were examined in rat hypothalamus. In untreated males, few if any ir perikarya were found in the arcuate nucleus, but after intraventricular colchicine administration, many appeared not only in the arcuate nucleus but also in the premammillary region, posterior hypothalamic, ventromedial, dorsomedial,(More)
Moxibustion is a technique used in traditional oriental medicine, the aim of which is to cure and/or prevent illness by activating a person's ability for self-healing. In this study, we assessed how moxibustion would affect the immune system and whether it would augment protective immunity. Mice were treated with moxibustion at Zusanli (ST36) acupoints; we(More)
Foxn1 transcription factor is known to be essential for development of the thymic organ. We analyzed whether Foxn1 expression in thymic epithelial cells is necessary for the expression of functional molecules such as Delta-like 4 (Dll4) and CCL25, and whether maintenance of these molecular expressions depends on the Foxn1 transcription factor. We show that(More)
Notch signaling is required for the early steps in T cell development. However, distribution of Notch ligands in the thymus anlages is not clear. We investigated the expressions of Delta like (Dll) 1 and Dll4 in the mouse thymus anlages. In the normal thymus anlages on embryonic day 13, Dll4 is strongly expressed throughout the epithelial region, but Dll1(More)
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