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Although more than 100 people have been infected by H5N1 influenza A viruses, human-to-human transmission is rare. What are the molecular barriers limiting human-to-human transmission? Here we demonstrate an anatomical difference in the distribution in the human airway of the different binding molecules preferred by the avian and human influenza viruses.(More)
Since the beginning of the 20th century, humans have experienced four influenza pandemics, including the devastating 1918 'Spanish influenza'. Moreover, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses are currently spreading worldwide, although they are not yet efficiently transmitted among humans. While the threat of a global pandemic involving a(More)
The protective effects of Rooibos tea (RT), Aspalathus linearis, against damage to the central nervous system (CNS) accompanying aging were examined by both the thiobarbituric acid reaction (TBA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods in brains of chronically RT-treated rats. Ad libitum administration of RT was begun with 3-month-old Wistar female(More)
Anesthesia strongly influences laboratory animals, and it can also greatly affect the experimental data. Rats rank only second to mice in the number used in research fields, such as organ transplantation, regenerative medicine and imaging. Therefore, appropriate and effective anesthesia, including the protocol of the endotracheal intubation and inhalation(More)
D-3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh; EC is a necessary enzyme for de novo L-serine biosynthesis via the phosphorylated pathway. Targeted disruption of the mouse Phgdh gene has been shown to result in embryonic lethality, accompanied by severe abnormalities in brain development. Phgdh is expressed exclusively by neuroepithelium and radial(More)
Appropriate and effective anesthesia is critical, because it has a strong influence on laboratory animals, and its affect greatly impacts the experimental data. Inhalational anesthesia by endotracheal intubation is currently prevailing in general anesthesia and is prefered over injection anesthesia, especially for large laboratory animals, because it is a(More)
Animal models have provided important information for the genetics and pathophysiology of diabetes. Here we have established a novel, nonobese rat strain with spontaneous diabetes, Long-Evans Agouti (LEA) rat derived from Long-Evans (LE) strain. The incidence of diabetes in the males was 10% at 6 months of age and 86% at 14 months, while none of the females(More)
Using a homemade MR imaging probe (Helmoholtz coil), MR images of brains of 5-week-old and 23- or 24-month-old Wistar rats were taken under a magnetic field of 7.05 T (Tesla). The probe was designed to fit the rat head and made by winding thin copper film round an acrylic tube with a 5-cm i.d., 10-cm length and 2-mm thickness. This was adjusted to resonate(More)
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