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Rats were exposed to toluene at the concentrations of 1,000, 4,000 and 7,000 ppm for 1 hr a day, 6 days a week for 6 months and a half; 154 days' exposure. Behavioral tests on a test battery were carried out after the termination of 154 days' exposure. The performance level of FR 1, extinction of the FR 30 schedule, wheel running activity, scores of open(More)
An evolutionarily interesting nematode, Bursaphelenchus okinawaensis sp. nov., is described and illustrated. The new species has several characteristic morphological traits, i.e., four lateral lines in both sexes, lack of a vulval flap in females, and a triangular spicule shape and stout P4 caudal papillae in males, and characteristic biological traits,(More)
Diplogasteroides asiaticus n. sp. is described and illustrated, and its molecular profile and phylogenetic status within the family Diplogastridae are inferred. Morphologically, the new species is characterized by its stomatal structure, a tube-like stoma with three small, rod-like dorsal teeth and two subventral ridges; a spicule clearly ventrally bent at(More)
To clarify the effect of asymptomatic carrier trees on the epidemic spread of pine wilt disease, we inoculated Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner and Buhrer) Nickle into ~10-year-old Pinus thunbergii Parl. trees to make asymptomatic carrier trees of the nematodes, and then we examined the relationship between pine wilt disease development in these trees(More)
To clarify the effect of aging in adult Monochamus alternatus on the susceptibility of the beetle to Beauveria bassiana, we inoculated the fungus into adult beetles 0, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after emergence. The number of days from B. bassiana inoculation to M. alternatus death increased with the number of days from beetle emergence to inoculation up to 14(More)
Analysis of the restriction fragment length polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA (ITS-RFLP) is an efficient tool for classifying Bursaphelenchus nematodes at or below the species level. In B. xylophilus, it has been shown that the ITS-RFLP pattern of Japanese avirulent (nonpathogenic) isolates is different from that of(More)
To clarify the mechanisms of ischemic change in the vocal fold on phonation, model experiments were performed under various conditions by recording tissue oxygen pressure (Pto2) values under electrical stimulation of either the recurrent laryngeal nerves or external branches of the superior laryngeal nerves. In addition, autonomic nerve regulation of(More)
The ischemic change of the vocal fold on phonation was studied with an oxygen electrode using the canine vocal fold. Oxygen pressures of a limited area of the vocal fold were measured in the lamina propria and vocal muscle at the middle of the membranous portion. The results are summarized as follows: oxygen pressure in each area decreased on phonation as(More)