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In cultured hippocampal neurons, one axon and several dendrites differentiate from a common immature process. Here we found that CRMP-2/TOAD-64/Ulip2/DRP-2 (refs. 2-4) level was higher in growing axons of cultured hippocampal neurons, that overexpression of CRMP-2 in the cells led to the formation of supernumerary axons and that expression of truncated(More)
The serum level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is useful as a clinical marker for diagnosis and assessment of the progression of prostate cancer, and in evaluating the effectiveness of treatment. We characterized four Sp1/Sp3 binding sites in the proximal promoter of the PSA gene. In a luciferase assay, these sites contributed to the basal promoter(More)
The rat small eye strain (rSey) lacks eyes and nose in the homozygote, and is similar to the mouse Sey strain with mutations in the Pax-6 gene. We isolated Pax-6 cDNA clones from an rSey homozygote library, and found an internal deletion of about 600 basepairs in the serine/threonine-rich domain. At the genomic level, a single base (G) insertion in an exon(More)
Hu proteins are mammalian embryonic lethal abnormal visual system (ELAV)-like neuronal RNA-binding proteins that contain three RNA recognition motifs. Although Drosophila ELAV is required for the correct differentiation and survival of neurons, the roles played by the Hu genes in the mammalian nervous system remain largely unknown. To explore the in vivo(More)
PURPOSE Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta has been implicated as the key mediator of proliferative vitreoretinopathy, but the cellular mechanisms by which TGF-beta induces extracellular matrix protein (ECM) synthesis are not fully understood. The current study was conducted to examine whether the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is(More)
Tra2beta is the first mammalian protein which is proved to activate mRNA splicing in sequence-specific manner. Following hypoglossal nerve injury, the expression of Tra2beta mRNA was elevated in injured motoneurons transiently. The up-regulation of Tra2beta mRNA was observed from post-operative day 3 to 21. In addition to the nerve injury in PNS, a brain(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether a reporter gene carried by liposomes can be introduced into the ocular tissues in vivo by different routes of administration. METHODS Three different kinds of liposomes carrying plasmid DNA with beta-galactosidase gene were applied topically to the eye or were injected into the anterior chamber, subretinal space, and vitreous(More)
Adiponectin is one of the adipocytokines, which are adipose-specific secretory factors. We examined its expression during embryogenesis. Transcripts of adiponectin were detected at a late stage of embryogenesis on embryonic (E) day E16.5. In situ hybridization showed that adiponectin transcripts were localized in brown adipose tissues (BATs) and surrounding(More)
To elucidate the role of astrocytes in the stress response of the central nervous system to ischemia, early gene expression was examined in rat cultured astrocytes after the exposure to hypoxia/reoxygenation, and we have previously cloned a novel RNA binding protein, RA301, from the reoxygenated astrocytes. Furthermore, we have now cloned a new gene for(More)
Type XI collagen, a heterotrimer composed of α1(XI), α2(XI), and α3(XI), plays a critical role in cartilage formation and in skeletal morphogenesis. However, the transcriptional regulation of α1(XI) collagen gene (Col11a1) in chondrocyte is poorly characterized. In this study, we investigated the proximal promoter of mouse Col11a1 gene in chondrocytes.(More)