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Synaptic inputs on dendrites are nonlinearly converted to action potential outputs, yet the spatiotemporal patterns of dendritic activation remain to be elucidated at single-synapse resolution. In rodents, we optically imaged synaptic activities from hundreds of dendritic spines in hippocampal and neocortical pyramidal neurons ex vivo and in vivo. Adjacent(More)
The brain is spontaneously active even in the absence of external input. This ongoing background activity impacts neural information processing. We used functional multineuron calcium imaging (fMCI) to analyze the net structure of spontaneous CA3 network activity in hippocampal slice cultures loaded with Oregon Green 488 BAPTA-1 using a spinning disk(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in activity-dependent plasticity of neuronal function and network arrangement. To clarify how BDNF exerts its action, we evaluated the physiological, histological, and biochemical characteristics of cultured hippocampal neurons after long-term treatment with BDNF. Here we show that BDNF(More)
Macroscopic changes in cerebral blood flow, such as those captured by functional imaging of the brain, require highly organized, large-scale dynamics of astrocytes, glial cells that interact with both neuronal and cerebrovascular networks. However, astrocyte activity has been studied mainly at the level of individual cells, and information regarding their(More)
Once initiated near the soma, an action potential (AP) is thought to propagate autoregeneratively and distribute uniformly over axonal arbors. We challenge this classic view by showing that APs are subject to waveform modulation while they travel down axons. Using fluorescent patch-clamp pipettes, we recorded APs from axon branches of hippocampal CA3(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of neurotro-phins involved in the development and maintenance of both the peripheral nervous system and CNS. Although the expression of BDNF and its receptor TrkB still occurs in the adult stage, their physiological role in the mature CNS is not fully understood. In the present study we examined in detail the(More)
The mossy fibers (MFs) arising from dentate granule cells project primarily onto a narrow segment of the proximal dendrites of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells. The mechanisms underlying this specific MF target selection are not fully understood. To investigate the cellular basis for development of the stereotyped MF trajectories, we have arranged the fascia(More)
The Ca2+ influx controlled by intracellular Ca2+ stores, called store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOC), occurs in various eukaryotic cells, but whether CNS neurons are endowed with SOC capability and how they may operate have been contentious issues. Using Ca2+ imaging, we present evidence for the presence of SOC in cultured hippocampal pyramidal neurons.(More)
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is accompanied by an abnormal location of granule cells in the dentate gyrus. Using a rat model of complex febrile seizures, which are thought to be a precipitating insult of TLE later in life, we report that aberrant migration of neonatal-generated granule cells results in granule cell ectopia that persists into adulthood.(More)
Plasmin is converted from its zymogen plasminogen by tissue type or urokinase type plasminogen activator (PA) and degrades many components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). To explore the possibility that the PA-plasmin system regulates synaptic plasticity, we investigated the effect of plasmin on degradation of ECM and synaptic plasticity by using(More)