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We analyzed a Japanese chick wingless mutant (Jwg) to know a molecular mechanism underlying wing development. We observed expression patterns of eleven marker genes to characterize the mutant. Expressions of dorsoventral (DV) and mesenchymal marker genes were intact in nascent Jwg limb buds. However, expression of Fgf8, a marker gene for the apical(More)
Inoculation of carrot roots with Typhula spp. revealed that T. variabilis Riess and T. japonica Terui cause decay of carrot roots under snow, with rotting of the root crown. T. variabilis was more virulent than T. japonica. These fungi and T. incarnata Lasch: Fr., also attacked rapeseeds during the winter, and rapeseed leaves became blighted, bleaching out,(More)
Brown stem rot (BSR) caused by Cadophora gregata f. sp. adzukicola (syn. Phialophora gregata) is a serious soilborne disease of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) in Japan. Cultivation of resistant cultivars is the most effective disease control method, therefore the selection of resistant lines is a priority for breeders. BSR-resistant adzuki bean lines have(More)
Xylophilus ampelinus, the cause of bacterial blight of grapevine, was first identified in 2009 in Hokkaido, Japan. We investigated the distribution of X. ampelinus in grapevines and its winter habitat in Hokkaido. After defoliation of artificially infected potted plants, new branches were cut and stored in plastic bags at 5 °C in the dark for 60 days. PCR(More)
In August 2010, bacterial soft rot was found on root chicory (Cichorium intybus var. sativum) in Hokkaido, Japan. Severely infected plants in fields were discolored, had wilted foliage, and black necrosis of petioles near the crown. Wilted leaves subsequently collapsed and died, forming a dry, brown or black rosette. The root and crown became partially or(More)
We developed a simultaneous detection and discrimination method for the main Pratylenchus and Meloidogyne species of nematodes inhabiting Japanese fields. The method consists of a single polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) process using group-specific primers (SNem 1–4) constructed from the 18S rDNA region with(More)
Microdochium majus and Microdochium nivale are two of fungal pathogens that cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat, and have also caused pink snow mold in eastern Hokkaido, Japan. With the aim of assessing levels of genetic variation and population structure, 172 isolates of these Microdochium species obtained from five populations of infected wheat(More)
Typhula winter rot on overwintering carrots caused by Typhula variabilis is a newly confirmed disease, and no practical control measure is yet available. To develop a control method, here we researched the infection period of T. variabilis and the time that winter rot appeared on carrots. Using spore traps, we found that basidiospore rain occurred from(More)
Twenty-nine isolates of Thanatephorus cucumeris (Rhizoctonia solani) AG-2-2 IV were collected from the roots, petioles, and leaves of diseased sugar beets in Hokkaido, Japan. We examined the genetic variation of the field isolates using somatic compatibility grouping of progeny (cultured isolates derived from induced basidiospores) based on analysis of(More)
We investigated the efficacy of a microbial copper agent to protect against bacterial blight of grapevine caused by Xylophilus ampelinus from 2012 to 2014 in Hokkaido, Japan. A solution of the basic copper wettable powder sulfate was sprayed at 10-day intervals in two processing plots, using two application protocols: seven rounds of application immediately(More)