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We analyzed a Japanese chick wingless mutant (Jwg) to know a molecular mechanism underlying wing development. We observed expression patterns of eleven marker genes to characterize the mutant. Expressions of dorsoventral (DV) and mesenchymal marker genes were intact in nascent Jwg limb buds. However, expression of Fgf8, a marker gene for the apical(More)
The peptidoglycan compositions of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) strain Mu50 (MIC 8 mg/L) and hetero-VRSA strain Mu3 (MIC 3 mg/L) were compared in order to understand the mechanism of vancomycin resistance. As compared with Mu3, the cell wall of Mu50 had increased amounts of glutamine-non-amidated muropeptides and decreased cross-linking(More)
We report a novel phenotype of methicillin resistance, designated "Eagle-type" resistance, which is characteristic in its resistance to high concentrations of methicillin (64 to 512 microg/ml) and susceptibility to low concentrations of methicillin (2 to 16 microg/ml). The type of resistance was expressed in mutant strains selected with high concentrations(More)
Inoculation of carrot roots with Typhula spp. revealed that T. variabilis Riess and T. japonica Terui cause decay of carrot roots under snow, with rotting of the root crown. T. variabilis was more virulent than T. japonica. These fungi and T. incarnata Lasch: Fr., also attacked rapeseeds during the winter, and rapeseed leaves became blighted, bleaching out,(More)
Xylophilus ampelinus, the cause of bacterial blight of grapevine, was first identified in 2009 in Hokkaido, Japan. We investigated the distribution of X. ampelinus in grapevines and its winter habitat in Hokkaido. After defoliation of artificially infected potted plants, new branches were cut and stored in plastic bags at 5 °C in the dark for 60 days. PCR(More)
Brown stem rot (BSR) caused by Cadophora gregata f. sp. adzukicola (syn. Phialophora gregata) is a serious soilborne disease of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) in Japan. Cultivation of resistant cultivars is the most effective disease control method, therefore the selection of resistant lines is a priority for breeders. BSR-resistant adzuki bean lines have(More)
In August 2010, bacterial soft rot was found on root chicory (Cichorium intybus var. sativum) in Hokkaido, Japan. Severely infected plants in fields were discolored, had wilted foliage, and black necrosis of petioles near the crown. Wilted leaves subsequently collapsed and died, forming a dry, brown or black rosette. The root and crown became partially or(More)
Typhula winter rot on overwintering carrots caused by Typhula variabilis is a newly confirmed disease, and no practical control measure is yet available. To develop a control method, here we researched the infection period of T. variabilis and the time that winter rot appeared on carrots. Using spore traps, we found that basidiospore rain occurred from(More)
Strains of the bacterium Xylophilus ampelinus were collected from Europe and Hokkaido, Japan. Genomic fingerprints generated from 43 strains revealed four DNA types (A–D) using the combined results of Rep-, ERIC-, and Box-PCR. Genetic variation was found among the strains examined; strains collected from Europe belonged to DNA types A or B, and strains(More)
We investigated the efficacy of a microbial copper agent to protect against bacterial blight of grapevine caused by Xylophilus ampelinus from 2012 to 2014 in Hokkaido, Japan. A solution of the basic copper wettable powder sulfate was sprayed at 10-day intervals in two processing plots, using two application protocols: seven rounds of application immediately(More)