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OBJECTIVE The therapeutic potential of exendin-4, an agonist of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), on diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice was investigated. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The presence of the GLP-1R in lumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG) was evaluated by immunohistochemical analyses. DRG(More)
UNLABELLED Aims/Introduction:  Excessive intake of sucrose can cause severe health issues, such as diabetes mellitus. In animal studies, consumption of a high-sucrose diet (SUC) has been shown to cause obesity, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. However, several in vivo experiments have been carried out using diets with much higher sucrose contents(More)
Calcium plays a fundamental role as second messenger in intracellular signaling and bone serves as the body's calcium reserve to tightly maintain blood calcium levels. Calcium in ingested meal is the main supply and inadequate calcium intake causes osteoporosis and bone fracture. Here, we describe a novel mechanism of how ingested calcium is deposited on(More)
AIMS/INTRODUCTION Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin secreted from the gastrointestinal tract after an ingestion of nutrients, and stimulates an insulin secretion from the pancreatic islets. Additionally, GIP has important roles in extrapancreatic tissues: fat accumulation in adipose tissue, neuroprotective effects in the central nervous(More)
UNLABELLED Aims/Introduction:  Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are the major incretins; their secretion after various nutrient loads are well-evaluated in Caucasians. However, little is known of the relationship between incretin secretion and differing nutritional loading in Japanese subjects. In the present study,(More)
Glucose is essential for energy production in the living body; the glucose transporter plays a critical role in various organs. Glucose transporters are classified into two families: facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs) and sodium-dependent glucose transporters (SGLTs), through which glucose is transported by facilitated diffusion, and Na + /glucose(More)
UNLABELLED Aims/Introduction:  Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are major incretins that potentiate insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. The factors responsible for incretin secretion have been reported in Caucasian subjects, but have not been thoroughly evaluated in Japanese subjects. We evaluated the factors(More)
Adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels play an essential role in glucose-induced insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. It was recently reported that the KATP channel is also found in the enteroendocrine K-cells and L-cells that secrete glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), respectively.(More)
UNLABELLED Aims/Introduction:  Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is one of the contributing factors in the development of type 2 diabetes. To investigate the cytoprotective effect of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) signaling in vivo, we examined the action of exendin-4 (Ex-4), a potent GLP-1R agonist, on β-cell apoptosis in Akita mice, an animal(More)
The enzyme cytochrome P450 aromatase is responsible for conversion of androgens to estrogens. Estrogens have been implicated in neurophysiology and neuropathology. The present study investigated the presence of aromatase immunoreactivity in the temporal, parietal and occipital cortices, olfactory bulb, cerebellum, and choroid plexus of the normal dog.(More)