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OBJECTIVE The therapeutic potential of exendin-4, an agonist of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), on diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice was investigated. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The presence of the GLP-1R in lumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG) was evaluated by immunohistochemical analyses. DRG(More)
Calcium plays a fundamental role as second messenger in intracellular signaling and bone serves as the body's calcium reserve to tightly maintain blood calcium levels. Calcium in ingested meal is the main supply and inadequate calcium intake causes osteoporosis and bone fracture. Here, we describe a novel mechanism of how ingested calcium is deposited on(More)
AIMS Hypersecretion of glucagon and reduced insulin secretion both contribute to hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, the relative contributions of impaired glucagon and insulin secretions in glucose excursions at the various stages of T2DM development remain to be determined. METHODS The responses of glucagon and insulin as well as those of(More)
UNLABELLED Aims/Introduction:  Excessive intake of sucrose can cause severe health issues, such as diabetes mellitus. In animal studies, consumption of a high-sucrose diet (SUC) has been shown to cause obesity, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. However, several in vivo experiments have been carried out using diets with much higher sucrose contents(More)
Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin released from enteroendocrine K cells in response to nutrient intake, especially fat. GIP is one of the contributing factors inducing fat accumulation that results in obesity. A recent study shows that fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) is expressed in murine K cells and is involved in fat-induced GIP(More)
To clarify the cytoprotective effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) signaling in conditions of glucose toxicity in vivo, we performed murine isogenic islet transplantation with and without exendin-4 treatment. When a suboptimal number of islets (150) were transplanted into streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, exendin-4 treatment contributed(More)
Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) exhibits potent insulinotropic effects on β-cells and anabolic effects on bone formation and fat accumulation. We explored the impact of reduced GIP levels in vivo on glucose homeostasis, bone formation, and fat accumulation in a novel GIP-GFP knock-in (KI) mouse. We generated GIP-GFP KI mice with a truncated prepro-GIP(More)
Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin released from enteroendocrine K-cells in response to nutrient ingestion. GIP potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and induces energy accumulation into adipose tissue, resulting in obesity. Plasma GIP levels are reported to be increased in the obese state. However, the molecular mechanisms of(More)
Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin that potentiates insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells by binding to GIP receptor (GIPR) and subsequently increasing the level of intracellular adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP). We have identified a novel GIPR splice variant in mouse beta-cells that retains intron 8, resulting in a(More)
Glucose is essential for energy production in the living body; the glucose transporter plays a critical role in various organs. Glucose transporters are classified into two families: facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs) and sodium-dependent glucose transporters (SGLTs), through which glucose is transported by facilitated diffusion, and Na + /glucose(More)