Norimitsu Kadowaki

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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are ancient microbial pattern recognition receptors highly conserved from Drosophila to humans. To investigate if subsets of human dendritic cell precursors (pre-DC), including monocytes (pre-DC1), plasmacytoid DC precursors (pre-DC2), and CD11c(+) immature DCs (imDCs) are developed to recognize different microbes or microbial(More)
Interferons (IFNs) are the most important cytokines in antiviral immune responses. "Natural IFN-producing cells" (IPCs) in human blood express CD4 and major histocompatibility complex class II proteins, but have not been isolated and further characterized because of their rarity, rapid apoptosis, and lack of lineage markers. Purified IPCs are here shown to(More)
It is not known whether subsets of dendritic cells provide different cytokine microenvironments that determine the differentiation of either type-1 T helper (TH1) or TH2 cells. Human monocyte (pDC1)-derived dendritic cells (DC1) were found to induce TH1 differentiation, whereas dendritic cells (DC2) derived from CD4+CD3-CD11c- plasmacytoid cells (pDC2)(More)
Two classes of nucleic acids, bacterial DNA containing unmethylated CpG motifs and dsRNA in viruses, induce the production of type I IFN that contributes to the immunostimulatory effects of these microbial molecules. Thus, it is important to determine which cells produce type I IFN in response to CpG DNA and dsRNA. CD4(+)CD11c(-) type 2 dendritic cell(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) and mast cells (MCs) co-localize in peripheral tissues of antigen entry, i.e. skin and mucosa. Due to the proximity of these two cell types, activation of MCs may affect DC functions. Here, we co-cultured human monocyte-derived DCs with cord blood-derived MCs activated by cross-linking of FcepsilonRI to elucidate the net effect of the(More)
Natural alpha interferon (IFN-alpha)-producing cells (IPCs) are now recognized as identical to plasmacytoid dendritic cell (DC) precursors in human blood and are thought to play an important role in antiviral immunity. In the present study, we examined the susceptibility as well as the cellular responses of IPCs to human immunodeficiency virus type 1(More)
Type I interferons (IFNs) are promptly produced upon invasion of pathogens, and activate a broad range of effector cells in the innate and adaptive immune system. Lin(-)CD4(+)CD11c(-) plasmacytoid dendritic cell precursors (plasmacytoid pre-DCs) produce enormous amounts of type I IFNs in response to viruses and CpG DNA, thus corresponding to the previously(More)
Innate immune responses to pathogens critically impact the development of adaptive immune responses. However, it is not completely understood how innate immunity controls the initiation of adaptive immunities or how it determines which type of adaptive immunity will be induced to eliminate a given pathogen. Here we show that viral stimulation not only(More)
Innate immune responses to pathogens critically impact the development of adaptive immune responses. However, it is not completely understood how innate immunity controls the initiation of adaptive immunities or how it determines which type of adaptive immunity will be induced to eliminate a given pathogen. Here we show that viral stimulation not only(More)
We herein describe an unusual case of multicentric Castleman's disease accompanied by thrombocytopenia, ascites, renal failure and myelofibrosis in a Japanese woman. The patient was initially diagnosed as having myelodysplastic syndrome with myelofibrosis. The general condition of the patient deteriorated rapidly; however, treatment with tocilizumab, an(More)