Norimasa Yamada

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The purpose of the present study was to determine how joint stiffness during cyclic movement in a vertical plane is modulated at lower or higher frequencies than the natural frequency of the system. Five male subjects were instructed to swing their forearms rhythmically in a vertical plane under various frequency conditions (0.7-2.25 Hz). To estimate the(More)
Voluntary arm movements frequently perturb body equilibrium in an upright posture. The motions of leg joints need to be coordinated according to the properties of voluntary arm movements in order to maintain body equilibrium, and this may cause a change in postural pattern. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the kinematic pattern generation(More)
This study aimed to investigate the influence of the anticipation of a perturbation torque applied to extend the elbow joint on the onset time of reflex electromyogram (EMG) responses. A perturbation torque generated by an electromagnetic torque motor system was applied to the forearm of eleven subjects during trials. The trials were divided into an(More)
The shoulder internal rotation (IR) and forearm pronation (PR) are important elements for baseball pitching, however, how rapid rotations of IR and PR are produced by muscular torques and inter-segmental forces is not clear. The aim of this study is to clarify how IR and PR angular velocities are maximized, depending on muscular torque and interactive(More)
Anticipation of elbow joint perturbation shortens the onset time of the reflex EMG response in biceps brachii and triceps brachii Abstract This study aimed to investigate the influence of the anticipation of a perturbation torque applied to extend the elbow joint on the onset time of reflex electromyogram (EMG) responses. A perturbation torque generated by(More)
This study determined whether expert swimmers, compared with nonexperts, have superior movement perception and physical sensations of propulsion in water. Expert (national level competitors, n = 10) and nonexpert (able to swim 50 m in > 3 styles, n = 10) swimmers estimated the distance propelled in water with their eyes closed. Both groups indicated their(More)
Although it was reported that ground reaction forces (GRFs) are generated simultaneously by the leading and trailing limbs during the double stance phase, the finding was not examined by temporal analyses. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to clarify how GRFs can act to propel the body in a forward direction during the double stance phase. GRFs(More)
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