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Living cells must maintain their membranes by active metabolism. The membrane is not static but a dynamic structure that has evolved along with its internal reactions. When we reflect on the emergence and evolution of primitive cells, we should not forget the mutual dependency between membranes and metabolic cycles inside the cell. In this paper, we present(More)
Several ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters can transport drugs out of cells against steep concentration gradients resulting in resistance to the drugs transported. Recent work has shown that at least three members of the family of human Multidrug Resistance-associated Proteins (MRPs), MRP4, 5 and 8, are able to transport some nucleoside-monophosphate(More)
The production of hook protein and flagellin in 29 Fla- mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 was determined by the complement fixation assay. Six mutants produced hook protein, and four of them also produced flagellin. A flaE mutation was introduced into these fla mutants carrying the hook structure. All of these mutants made polyhooks and were used as hosts(More)
We have examined Escherichia coli K12 flagellar mutants affected in each of 29 different loci for the synthesis of flagellin and hook subunit protein. Immune precipitation experiments were employed by treating cell extracts with antiserum against each protein. Flagellin was synthesized in mutants defective in genes flaS, flaT, flaU and flbC. The flaE and(More)
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