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Despite the therapeutic potential of nucleic acid drugs, their clinical application has been limited in part by a lack of appropriate delivery systems. Exosomes or microvesicles are small endosomally derived vesicles that are secreted by a variety of cell types and tissues. Here, we show that exosomes can efficiently deliver microRNA (miRNA) to epidermal(More)
Activation of the EGFR, KRAS, and ALK oncogenes defines 3 different pathways of molecular pathogenesis in lung adenocarcinoma. However, many tumors lack activation of any pathway (triple-negative lung adenocarcinomas) posing a challenge for prognosis and treatment. Here, we report an extensive genome-wide expression profiling of 226 primary human stage I-II(More)
Neurotrophins are key regulators of the fate and shape of neuronal cells and act as guidance cues for growth cones by remodeling the actin cytoskeleton. Actin dynamics is controlled by Rho GTPases. We identified a novel Rho GTPase-activating protein (Grit) for Rho/Rac/Cdc42 small GTPases. Grit was abundant in neuronal cells and directly interacted with(More)
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) is among the most common growth factors used in cultures to maintain self-renewal and proliferative capabilities of a variety of stem cells, including neural stem cells (NSCs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the control by FGF have remained elusive. Studies on mutant mice of FGF receptor substrate 2α (FRS2α), a(More)
Acquired uniparental disomy (aUPD) is a common feature of cancer genomes, leading to loss of heterozygosity. aUPD is associated not only with loss-of-function mutations of tumour suppressor genes, but also with gain-of-function mutations of proto-oncogenes. Here we show unique gain-of-function mutations of the C-CBL (also known as CBL) tumour suppressor(More)
Telomerase is a regulated enzyme and its activity is tightly associated with cell proliferation. The mechanisms of this association are unclear, but specific growth factors may regulate telomerase activity. The present study examines the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on telomerase activity and identifies the signal transduction pathway involved in(More)
The FRS2 family of adaptor/scaffold proteins has two members, FRS2alpha and FRS2beta. Both proteins contain N-terminal myristylation sites for localization on the plasma membrane and a PTB domain for binding to limited species of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), including the FGF receptor, the neurotophin receptor, RET, and ALK. Activation of these RTKs(More)
We have previously shown that the Drosophila Ste20 kinase encoded by misshapen (msn) is an essential gene in Drosophila development. msn function is required to activate the Drosophila c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), basket (Bsk), to promote dorsal closure of the Drosophila embryo. Later in development, msn expression is required in photoreceptors in order(More)
Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is an alternatively spliced variant of the pyruvate kinase gene that is preferentially expressed during embryonic development and in cancer cells. PKM2 alters the final rate-limiting step of glycolysis, resulting in the cancer-specific Warburg effect (also referred to as aerobic glycolysis). Although previous reports suggest that(More)
We propose a state space representation of vector autoregressive model and its sparse learning based on L1 regularization to achieve efficient estimation of dynamic gene networks based on time course microarray data. The proposed method can overcome drawbacks of the vector autoregressive model and state space model; the assumption of equal time interval and(More)