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Irritant dermatitis represents innate inflammatory responses to toxic chemicals. We have reported recently that ATP released from chemically injured keratinocytes may serve as a causative mediator for irritant dermatitis. In this study, we examined whether ATP release from keratinocytes would serve as a reliable readout for predicting skin irritating(More)
CD39, the endothelial ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase), regulates vascular inflammation and thrombosis by hydrolyzing ATP and ADP. Although ecto-NTPDase activities have been used as a marker of epidermal dendritic cells (DCs) known as Langerhans cells, the identity and function of these activities remain unknown. Here we report that(More)
Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) have long been considered to play pathogenic roles in various disorders, this classic view is now being challenged by the recent discovery of their physiological roles in cellular signaling. To determine the immunological consequence of pharmacological disruption of endogenous redox regulation, we used a(More)
Hyaluronan (HA), a high molecular weight glycosaminoglycan, is expressed abundantly in the extracellular matrix and on cell surfaces. Although HA is known to bind many adhesion molecules, little information has been available with respect to its direct physiological role. In this study, we developed a novel 12-mer (GAHWQFNALTVR) peptide inhibitor of HA,(More)
Despite the crucial roles dendritic cells (DC) play in host immunity against cancer, the pharmacologic effects of many chemotherapeutic agents have remained mostly unknown. We recently developed a DC biosensor clone by engineering the stable murine DC line XS106 to express the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) gene under the control of interleukin (IL)-1beta(More)
Although several studies have suggested relatively slow turnover of Langerhans cells (LCs), their actual lifespan remains elusive. Here we report the development of a new intravital imaging system for studying LC efflux and influx. Epidermal LCs expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were visualized in anesthetized I-Abeta-EGFP knock-in mice(More)
Immature dendritic cells (DC) at the environmental interfaces, such as the skin, constantly survey the tissue for the emergence of microbial products and pro-inflammatory mediators. Upon recognition of such "danger" signals, they undergo dynamic reprogramming of gene expression and functions, the process known as DC maturation, which plays critical roles in(More)
Langerhans cells (LCs) represent a unique DC subset populating the outermost body surface, i.e., the epidermis. Although CD1a and langerin (CD207) are used as specific markers to distinguish LCs from other DC subsets, their immunological functions have remained mostly unknown. A new paper (see the related article beginning on page 701) demonstrates that LCs(More)
Immunostimulants represent an emerging class of drugs for the treatment of infectious disorders and cancer. CpG oligonucleotides and imiquimod, prototypic drugs in this category, are now known to activate dendritic cells (DCs). Here we report the development of a highly sensitive, unbiased functional screen to detect DC-stimulatory signals. Because(More)