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Parrondo's paradox occurs in sequences of games in which a winning expectation may be obtained by playing the games in a random order, even though each game in the sequence may be lost when played individually. Several variations of Parrondo's games apparently with paradoxical property have been introduced; history dependence, one dimensional line, two… (More)

We introduce a series of generalized clustering coefficients based on String formalism given by Aoyama, using adjacent matrix in networks. We numerically evaluate Milgram condition proposed in order to explore q-th degrees of separation in scale free networks and small world networks. We find that scale free network with exponent 3 just shows 6-degrees of… (More)

Braess [1] has been studied about a traffic flow on a diamond type network and found that introducing new edges to the networks always does not achieve the efficiency. Some researchers studied the Braess' paradox in similar type networks by introducing various types of cost functions. But whether such paradox occurs or not is not scarcely studied in complex… (More)

Parrondo's paradox occurs in sequences of games in which a winning expectation value of a payoff may be obtained by playing two games in a random order, even though each game in the sequence may be lost when played individually. Several variations of Parrondo's games apparently with the same paradoxical property have been introduced [5]; history dependence,… (More)

– Parrondo's paradox occurs in sequences of games in which a winning expectation may be obtained by playing the games in a random order, even though each game in the sequence may be lost when played individually. Several variations of Parrondo's games with paradoxical property have been introduced. In this paper , I examine whether Parrondo's paradox occurs… (More)

Milgram Condition proposed by Aoyama et al. [11] plays an important role on the analysis of " six degrees of separation ". We have shown[16], [17] that the relations between Milgram condition and the generalized clustering coefficient, which was introduced as an index for measuring the number of closed paths by us[6]-[10], are absolutely different in scale… (More)

We reformulated the string formalism given by Aoyama, using an adjacent matrix of a network and introduced a series of generalized clustering coefficients based on it. Furthermore we numerically evaluated Milgram condition proposed by their article in order to explore q-th degrees of separation in scale free networks. In this article, we apply the… (More)

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