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We propose a nondestructive or optical method of measuring the chlorophyll content in a leaf after constructing a mathematical model of reflectance and transmittance of plant leaves as a function of their chlorophyll pigment content. The model is based on the Kubelka-Munk theory and involves the modeling of the multiple reflection of light in a leaf that is(More)
Whereas the phase separation of normal phospholipids induces formation of microdomains on the surface of spherical vesicles, the separation of a long- and short-chain lipids can induce perforation of small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) and transformation into bilayered micelles (bicelles) because the edges of the bilayers are stabilized by the short-chain(More)
Membrane fluctuations of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) were investigated by neutron spin echo spectroscopy. The intermediate structure factor was analyzed in terms of the model proposed by Zilman and Granek (Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4788 (1996)), and the bending modulus of lipid bilayers was derived. The(More)
We have used steady-state and time-resolved neutron reflectometry to study the diffusion of fullerene derivatives into the narrow optical gap polymer poly[N-9″-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) to explore the sequential processing of the donor and acceptor for the preparation of efficient organic(More)
Although many kinds of synthetic polymers have been investigated to construct blood-compatible materials, only a few have achieved success. To establish molecular designs for blood-compatible polymers, the chain structure and dynamics at the water interface must be understood using solid evidence as the first bench mark. Here we show that polymer dynamics(More)
In this study, we found that the surface made of a mixture of poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) exhibited excellent blood compatibility by inhibiting platelet adhesion. To obtain a better understanding of this bioinertness, the polymer/water interface was characterized by neutron reflectivity measurements and sum(More)
– Small-angle X-ray scattering and phase-contrast microscopy experiments were performed to investigate the effect of the osmotic pressure on vesicle formation in a dioleoylphos-phatidylcholine (DOPC)/water/NaI system. Multi-lamellar vesicles were formed when a pure lipid film was hydrated with an aqueous solution of NaI. On the other hand, uni-lamellar(More)
We have studied the glass transition temperature (T(g)) and molecular mobility of polystyrene (PS) thin films near the interface between the polymer thin film and substrate with bilayer thin films consisting of surface hydrogenated PS (h-PS) and bottom deuterated PS (d-PS) using neutron reflectivity. With decreasing the thickness of the bottom d-PS layer,(More)
Results of this study demonstrated that electroless nickel-phosphorus (NiP) plated metal substrate is an excellent material for producing large aspherical neutron-focusing supermirrors. A large plano-elliptical neutron-focusing supermirror comprising two metallic segments was fabricated using single-point diamond cutting, precision polishing and supermirror(More)
The growth process of high-aspect-ratio gold nanorods in gelled surfactant solution was studied. As for the application of gold nanorods, the surface plasmon is quite useful, whose absorption depends on their aspect ratio. Hence it is important to synthesize gold nanorods with favorable aspect ratio in high yield. For shorter nanorods (aspect ratio < -10),(More)