Norifumi Iijima

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Monocytes patrol various tissues for signs of infection and inflammation. Inflammatory monocytes enter peripheral tissues at sites of microbial infection and differentiate into dendritic cells and macrophages. Here, we examined the importance of monocytes in primary mucosal infection with herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), and demonstrate that monocyte-derived(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are powerful APCs capable of activating naive lymphocytes. Of the DC subfamilies, plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) are unique in that they secrete high levels of type I IFNs in response to viruses but their role in inducing adaptive immunity remains divisive. In this study, we examined the importance of pDCs and their ability to recognize a(More)
Although the importance of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and neutralizing antibodies for antiviral defense is well known, the antiviral mechanism of Th1 remains unclear. We show that Th1 cells mediate noncytolytic antiviral protection independent of direct lysis through local secretion of IFN-gamma after herpes simplex virus (HSV) 2 infection. IFN-gamma acted on(More)
Type I interferons (IFNs) are considered to be the universal mechanism by which viral infections are controlled. However, many IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) rely on antiviral pathways that are toxic to host cells, which may be detrimental in nonrenewable cell types, such as neurons. We show that dorsal root ganglionic (DRG) neurons produced little type I IFNs(More)
CD8 tissue-resident memory T (T(RM)) cells provide efficient local control of viral infection, but the role of CD4 T(RM) is less clear. Here, by using parabiotic mice, we show that a preexisting pool of CD4 T(RM) cells in the genital mucosa was required for full protection from a lethal herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection. Chemokines secreted by a(More)
Although mucosal surfaces represent the main portal of entry for pathogens, the mechanism of antigen presentation by dendritic cells (DCs) that patrol various mucosal tissues remains unclear. Instead, much effort has focused on the understanding of initiation of immune responses generated against antigens delivered by injection. We examined the(More)
Functional roles of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) activation in dendritic-cell (DC) maturation have been unclear. In the present study, we investigated the ERK pathway in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced maturation of murine spleen-derived DC. TNF-alpha increased surface expressions of major histocompatibility (MHC) and costimulatory(More)
A food poisoning case due to the ingestion of 'ogonori', an edible red alga, occurred at Yokohama, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, in late October 1993, resulting in two victims, including one death (female). No causative agent present in the ogonori was found from a routine bioassay for marine toxins. From the production of increased amounts of prostaglandins(More)
Most HIV infections result from heterosexual transmission to women. Because cellular immunity plays a key role in the control of the infection, we sought to strengthen cellular immune responses in vaginal tissue. We explored a novel prime-boost protocol that used two live mucosal agents that trigger different pathways of innate immunity and induce strong(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages are antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that are important in innate immune defense as well as in the generation and regulation of adaptive immunity against a wide array of pathogens. The genitourinary (GU) tract, which serves an important reproductive function, is constantly exposed to numerous agents of sexually(More)