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To investigate the morphology and evolutionary origin of muscles in vertebrate limbs, we conducted anatomical dissections, computed tomography and kinematic analyses on the pectoral fin of the African coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae. We discovered nine antagonistic pairs of pronators and supinators that are anatomically and functionally distinct from the(More)
An emission spectral analysis was carried out on chemiluminescence emitted from UVB-irradiated squalene. The main emission species produced by the transition of (1 delta g) (1 delta g) and (1 delta g) (1 sigma g +) to (3 sigma g -) (3 sigma g -) were found by spectroscopic analysis of the chemiluminescence. When beta-carotene was added to the irradiated(More)
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