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Several macrocyclic peptides ( approximately 30 amino acids), with diverse biological activities, have been isolated from the Rubiaceae and Violaceae plant families over recent years. We have significantly expanded the range of known macrocyclic peptides with the discovery of 16 novel peptides from extracts of Viola hederaceae, Viola odorata and Oldenlandia(More)
The microO-conotoxins are an intriguing class of conotoxins targeting various voltage-dependent sodium channels and molluscan calcium channels. In the current study, we have shown MrVIA and MrVIB to be the first known peptidic inhibitors of the transient tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) Na(+) current in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, in addition to(More)
In recent years an increasing number of miniproteins containing an amide-cyclized backbone have been discovered. The cyclotide family is the largest group of such proteins and is characterized by a circular protein backbone and six conserved cysteine residues linked by disulfide bonds in a tight core of the molecule. These form a cystine knot in which an(More)
The cyclic peptide sunflower trypsin inhibitor 1 (SFTI-1) blocks trypsin and is a promising drug lead and protein engineering scaffold. We show that SFTI-1 and the newfound SFT-L1 are buried within PawS1 and PawS2, precursors for seed storage protein albumins. Proalbumins are matured by asparaginyl endopeptidase, which we show is required to liberate both(More)
The cystine knot structural motif is present in peptides and proteins from a variety of species, including fungi, plants, marine molluscs, insects and spiders. It comprises an embedded ring formed by two disulfide bonds and their connecting backbone segments which is threaded by a third disulfide bond. It is invariably associated with nearby beta-sheet(More)
Much interest has been generated by recent reports on the discovery of circular (i.e. head-to-tail cyclized) proteins in plants. Here we report the three-dimensional structure of one of the newest such circular proteins, MCoTI-II, a novel trypsin inhibitor from Momordica cochinchinensis, a member of the Cucurbitaceae plant family. The structure consists of(More)
Insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3), a member of the relaxin peptide family, is produced in testicular Leydig cells and ovarian thecal cells. Gene knock-out experiments have identified a key biological role in initiating testes descent during fetal development. Additionally, INSL3 has an important function in mediating male and female germ cell function. These(More)
alpha-Conotoxin ImI derives from the venom of Conus imperialis and is the first and only small-peptide ligand that selectively binds to the neuronal alpha7 homopentameric subtype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). This receptor subtype is a possible drug target for several neurological disorders. The cysteines are connected in the pairs(More)
Relaxin-3 is the most recently discovered member of the relaxin family of peptide hormones. In contrast to relaxin-1 and -2, whose main functions are associated with pregnancy, relaxin-3 is involved in neuropeptide signaling in the brain. Here, we report the solution structure of human relaxin-3, the first structure of a relaxin family member to be solved(More)
Kalata B1 is a member of a new family of polypeptides, isolated from plants, which have a cystine knot structure embedded within an amide-cyclized backbone. This family of molecules are the largest known cyclic peptides, and thus, the mechanism of synthesis and folding is of great interest. To provide information about both these phenomena, we have(More)