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Several macrocyclic peptides ( approximately 30 amino acids), with diverse biological activities, have been isolated from the Rubiaceae and Violaceae plant families over recent years. We have significantly expanded the range of known macrocyclic peptides with the discovery of 16 novel peptides from extracts of Viola hederaceae, Viola odorata and Oldenlandia(More)
In recent years an increasing number of miniproteins containing an amide-cyclized backbone have been discovered. The cyclotide family is the largest group of such proteins and is characterized by a circular protein backbone and six conserved cysteine residues linked by disulfide bonds in a tight core of the molecule. These form a cystine knot in which an(More)
The microO-conotoxins are an intriguing class of conotoxins targeting various voltage-dependent sodium channels and molluscan calcium channels. In the current study, we have shown MrVIA and MrVIB to be the first known peptidic inhibitors of the transient tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) Na(+) current in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, in addition to(More)
The cystine knot structural motif is present in peptides and proteins from a variety of species, including fungi, plants, marine molluscs, insects and spiders. It comprises an embedded ring formed by two disulfide bonds and their connecting backbone segments which is threaded by a third disulfide bond. It is invariably associated with nearby beta-sheet(More)
Insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3), a member of the relaxin peptide family, is produced in testicular Leydig cells and ovarian thecal cells. Gene knock-out experiments have identified a key biological role in initiating testes descent during fetal development. Additionally, INSL3 has an important function in mediating male and female germ cell function. These(More)
Much interest has been generated by recent reports on the discovery of circular (i.e. head-to-tail cyclized) proteins in plants. Here we report the three-dimensional structure of one of the newest such circular proteins, MCoTI-II, a novel trypsin inhibitor from Momordica cochinchinensis, a member of the Cucurbitaceae plant family. The structure consists of(More)
alpha-Conotoxin ImI derives from the venom of Conus imperialis and is the first and only small-peptide ligand that selectively binds to the neuronal alpha7 homopentameric subtype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). This receptor subtype is a possible drug target for several neurological disorders. The cysteines are connected in the pairs(More)
The cyclotides are a recently discovered family of miniproteins that contain a head-to-tail cyclized backbone and a knotted arrangement of disulfide bonds. They are approximately 30 amino acids in size and are present in high abundance in plants from the Violaceae, Rubiaceae, and Cucurbitaceae families, with individual plants containing a suite of up to 100(More)
Relaxin-3 is the most recently discovered member of the relaxin family of peptide hormones. In contrast to relaxin-1 and -2, whose main functions are associated with pregnancy, relaxin-3 is involved in neuropeptide signaling in the brain. Here, we report the solution structure of human relaxin-3, the first structure of a relaxin family member to be solved(More)
Cyclotides are plant peptides comprising a circular backbone and three conserved disulfide bonds that confer them with exceptional stability. They were originally discovered in Oldenlandia affinis based on their use in traditional African medicine to accelerate labor. Recently, cyclotides have been identified in numerous plant species of the coffee, violet,(More)