Noreen Machila

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A study using a structured questionnaire was conducted in Busia District, Western Kenya and Kwale District, Coastal Kenya to obtain qualitative and quantitative information from 256 cattle owners about their production systems, their perceptions of the diseases encountered in their cattle, the drugs used, and other measures adopted to control(More)
This manuscript provides a summary of the results presented at a symposium organized to accumulate information on factors that influence the prevalence of acaricide resistance and tick-borne diseases. This symposium was part of the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP), held in New(More)
In a tsetse-infested area of Kenya, we characterised veterinary-drug outlets based on personnel and business characteristics to assess their capacities to provide clinical veterinary services. Structured questionnaires were administered to the retailers and sought information on the characteristics of the owners, salespersons and businesses. A total of 41(More)
A survey to investigate resistance to drugs used in the treatment of bovine trypanosomosis was conducted in the eastern province of Zambia between 1996 and 1998. A cross-sectional study was conducted in three districts (Petauke, Katete, Lundazi) at 34 village sampling sites selected at random from villages that had shown greater than 6% prevalence of bovine(More)
Resistance to the drugs used to control African animal trypanosomosis is increasingly recognised as a constraint to livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa. The most commonly used tests for detection of trypanocidal drug resistance are tests using mice or ruminants, but these suffer from lack of standardisation and hence it may be difficult to compare(More)
The indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of anti-trypanosomal antibodies in bovine serum was adapted for use with dried blood spots on filter paper. Absorbance (450 nm) results for samples were expressed as percent positivity, i.e. percentage of the median absorbance result of four replicates of the strong positive control(More)
The ability of smallholder farmers and animal health workers to estimate live bodyweight can critically affect the likelihood of under- or over-dosing of veterinary compounds in decentralised systems where farmers administer a significant proportion of the veterinary treatments. A survey of 324 cattle owned by 170 farmers was conducted in Busia District,(More)
Tick- and tsetse-borne diseases cost Africa approximately US$4-5 billion per year in livestock production-associated losses. The use of pyrethroid-treated cattle to control ticks and tsetse promises to be an increasingly important tool to counter this loss. However, uncontrolled use of this technology might lead to environmental damage, acaricide resistance(More)
A longitudinal study was conducted over a 1-year period in six selected villages in Petauke and Katete districts in the Eastern Province of Zambia. Starting in November 1997, 50 animals were sampled at random at each village every 2 months. The parasitological prevalence of trypanosomosis was determined by the haematocrit centrifugation buffy-coat(More)
The Luangwa Valley has a long historical association with Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) and is a recognised geographical focus of this disease. It is also internationally acclaimed for its high biodiversity and contains many valuable habitats. Local inhabitants of the valley have developed sustainable land use systems in co-existence with wildlife(More)