Norbert Zmyj

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Recent research has shown that infants are more likely to engage with in-group over out-group members. However, it is not known whether infants' learning is influenced by a model's group membership. This study investigated whether 14-month-olds (N = 66) selectively imitate and adopt the preferences of in-group versus out-group members. Infants watched an(More)
In their widely noticed study, Gergely, Bekkering, and Király (2002) showed that 14-month-old infants imitated an unusual action only if the model freely chose to perform this action and not if the choice of the action could be ascribed to external constraints. They attributed this kind of selective imitation to the infants' capacity of understanding the(More)
It is well documented that in the first year after birth, infants are able to identify self-performed actions. This ability has been regarded as the basis of conscious self-perception. However, it is not yet known whether infants are also sensitive to aspects of the self when they cannot control the sensory feedback by means of self-performed actions.(More)
Human infants have an enormous amount to learn from others to become full-fledged members of their culture. Thus, it is important that they learn from reliable, rather than unreliable, models. In two experiments, we investigated whether 14-month-olds (a) imitate instrumental actions and (b) adopt the individual preferences of a model differently depending(More)
Infants' imitation of differently aged models has been predominately investigated with object-related actions and so far has lead to mixed evidence. Whereas some studies reported an increased likelihood of imitating peer models in contrast to adult models, other studies reported the opposite pattern of results. In the present study, 14-month-old infants(More)
In human adults, learning and memory under acute stress are characterized by an increased use of rigid habitual response strategies at the cost of flexible cognitive strategies. The immediate effects of stress on cognitive functioning early in life are not well understood. Here we show experimentally that acute stress leads human infants to perform habitual(More)
Dropout of infants in looking time studies sometimes occurs at high rates, raising concerns that the representativeness of the final sample might be reduced in comparison to the originally obtained sample. The current study investigated which infant characteristics play a role in dropout. Infants were presented with a preferential looking task at 6 and 9(More)
It has been proposed that infants selectively imitate based on a rational evaluation of the observed action (“rational-imiation-account,” Gergely et al., 2002). This view has been rejected by Paulus et al. (2011a) proposed a “two-stage model of infants” ability to imitate observed action-effect contingencies’. They claimed that infant imitation depends on(More)
Previous research suggests that sensitivity to aspects of the self and others develop in tandem. We tested 14- and 18-month-olds' imitative abilities and mirror self-image reactions (i.e., testing behavior and passing the mark test). Results showed that 14-month-olds' imitation was closely related to the occurrence of testing behavior in front of the(More)