Norbert Makori

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Immature dendritic cells are among the first cells infected by retroviruses after mucosal exposure. We explored the effects of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and its Tat transactivator on these primary antigen-presenting cells using DNA microarray analysis and functional assays. We found that HIV-1 infection or Tat expression induces interferon(More)
Viral suppression by noncytolytic CD8+ T cells, in addition to that by classic antiviral CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes, has been described for human immunodeficiency virus and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections. However, the role of soluble effector molecules, especially beta-chemokines, in antiviral immunity is still controversial. In an(More)
BACKGROUND We have previously reported that exposure of embryos to 13-cis-retinoic acid (cRA) results in an abnormal phenotype of the fetal cerebellum. In this study, we analyzed early changes in the cerebellar anlagen (midbrain-hindbrain junction) as well as lesions of the fetal cerebellar vermis after a teratogenic dosing regimen of cRA in the macaque(More)
There are close physiologic similarities between humans and macaques that make them well suited for preclinical testing of biopharmaceutics. These include menstrual cycles of similar length and hormonal control, comparable cellular and endocrine processes of implantation, and similar timetables of prenatal development. Three teratogenic agents have induced(More)
Little is known regarding the timing of immune ontogeny and effector function in fetal humans and nonhuman primates. We studied the organization of lymphocyte and antigen-presenting cell populations in developing lymphoid tissues of rhesus monkey fetuses during the second and third trimesters (65 to 145 days of gestation; term = 165 days).(More)
We have previously reported that exposure of monkey embryos to 13-cis-retinoic acid (cRA) results in thymic defects. In this study, we analyzed lymphocyte and antigen-presenting cell populations at gestational days (GDs) 80-100 in the thymus, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, and gut-associated lymphoid tissue following a teratogenic dosing regimen of cRA(More)
This study investigates hindbrain and associated neural crest (NCC), otocyst, and pharyngeal arch development in monkey embryos following teratogenic exposure to 13-cis-retinoic acid (cRA). cRA was orally administered (5 mg/kg) to pregnant long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) between gestational days (GD) 12 and 27. Embryos were surgically collected(More)
BACKGROUND An adult female goat with rare malformations, which consisted of duplication of the intestinal, lower urinary, and genital tracts as well a pair of parasitic appendages, is presented. METHODS A complete dissection was performed on a moribund female goat (Capra hircus). RESULTS The animal had a normal body with a parasitic attachment located(More)
13-cis retinoic acid (RA) is a causative agent for human/monkey retinoic acid embryopathy (RAE), in which the most common type of malformation is microtia or anotia. In the present study, malformed ears of monkey fetuses exposed to RA during early embryogenesis were analyzed and revealed a subtype of defects., i.e., apparent duplication of the(More)
Macaques are well suited for preclinical testing of biopharmaceutics due to reproductive and developmental similarities with humans. In order to characterize ontogeny of the immune system in this model, we studied lymphocyte and antigen-presenting cell populations in developing lymphoid tissues of rhesus macaque fetuses during the second and third(More)