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Signs of an inflammatory process, in particular increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased levels of prostaglandine E(2) (PGE(2)), have repeatedly been described in major depression (MD). As cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors inhibit the PGE(2) production and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, we performed a therapeutic trial with the(More)
Beside the well-known deficiency in serotonergic neurotransmission as pathophysiological correlate of major depression (MD), recent evidence points to a pivotal role of increased glutamate receptor activation as well. However, cause and interaction of these neurotransmitter alterations are not understood. In this review, we present a hypothesis integrating(More)
OBJECTIVE Abnormalities in the immune system in schizophrenia have been described. However, important findings such as high levels of activating cytokines in the CSF and signs of CNS inflammation have been controversial. The authors conducted a trial of the new selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib, an immunomodulatory drug, in schizophrenic(More)
Recent trials support the hypothesis of the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The overall therapeutic benefit of anti-inflammatory medication, in particular cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors in schizophrenia, is still controversial. There are suggestions that therapy with COX-2 inhibitors may influence the early stages of the(More)
1. Parallel to the current rapid development of new immunological methods, immune mechanisms are gaining more importance for our understanding of psychiatric disorders. The purpose of this article is to review basic and clinical investigations that elucidate the relationship between the CNS and the immune system. 2. The topical literature dealing with the(More)
An impairment of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCB) has repeatedly been described in schizophrenic patients. A BCB impairment can be due to vascular leakage during an inflammatory process, or to neuroleptic treatment. The soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) has been demonstrated to be a reliable marker for an inflammatory process(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors estimated the expression of adhesion molecule receptors (VLA-4 and LFA-1) on T helper (CD4+) and T suppressor/cytotoxic (CD8+) lymphocytes in schizophrenic patients before and during antipsychotic treatment and studied the relationship of these subpopulations to CSF measures and blood-brain barrier permeability. METHOD Blood was(More)