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Signs of an inflammatory process, in particular increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased levels of prostaglandine E(2) (PGE(2)), have repeatedly been described in major depression (MD). As cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors inhibit the PGE(2) production and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, we performed a therapeutic trial with the(More)
Beside the well-known deficiency in serotonergic neurotransmission as pathophysiological correlate of major depression (MD), recent evidence points to a pivotal role of increased glutamate receptor activation as well. However, cause and interaction of these neurotransmitter alterations are not understood. In this review, we present a hypothesis integrating(More)
OBJECTIVE Abnormalities in the immune system in schizophrenia have been described. However, important findings such as high levels of activating cytokines in the CSF and signs of CNS inflammation have been controversial. The authors conducted a trial of the new selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib, an immunomodulatory drug, in schizophrenic(More)
Recent trials support the hypothesis of the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The overall therapeutic benefit of anti-inflammatory medication, in particular cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors in schizophrenia, is still controversial. There are suggestions that therapy with COX-2 inhibitors may influence the early stages of the(More)
1. Parallel to the current rapid development of new immunological methods, immune mechanisms are gaining more importance for our understanding of psychiatric disorders. The purpose of this article is to review basic and clinical investigations that elucidate the relationship between the CNS and the immune system. 2. The topical literature dealing with the(More)
Increased proinflammatory markers like cytokines have been described in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of patients suffering from schizophrenia. Animal models have shown that a hit in early life to the immune system might trigger a lifelong increased immune reactivity. Many epidemiological and clinical studies show the role of various infectious agents(More)
The cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) increase during immune activation, they are released from activated astrocytes and microglial cells in the central nervous system (CNS), and they are able to enhance the catecholaminergic neurotransmission. This study focused on the soluble receptors of IL-2 and IL-6 (sIL-2R, sIL-6R) as a part of(More)
High levels of pro-inflammatory substances such as cytokines have been described in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of schizophrenia patients. Animal models of schizophrenia show that under certain conditions an immune disturbance during early life, such as an infection-triggered immune activation, might trigger lifelong increased immune reactivity. A(More)