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Indium tin oxide (ITO) reacts with tetra(tert-butoxy)tin to give surface bound alkoxytin species. Ligand exchange occurs in these surface bound species by reaction with substituted phenols. The speciation of surface phenoxides was measured in ultrahigh vacuum by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, as was the work function for the surface modified ITO. It is(More)
The field of organic thin films and devices is progressing at an extremely rapid pace. Organic–metal and organic– organic interfaces play crucial roles in charge injection into, and transport through, these devices. Their electronic structure, chemical properties, and electrical behavior must be fully characterized and understood if the engineering and(More)
  • Norbert Koch
  • 2007
A most appealing feature of the development of (opto)electronic devices based on conjugated organic materials is the highly visible link between fundamental research and technological advances. Improved understanding of organic material properties can often instantly be implemented in novel device architectures, which results in rapid progress in the(More)
Molecular doping: The standard model for molecular p-doping of organic semiconductors (OSCs) assumes integer charge transfer between OSC and dopant. This is in contrast to an alternative model based on intermolecular complex formation instead. By systematically varying the acceptor strength it was possible to discriminate the two models. The latter is(More)
Interface energetics are of fundamental importance in organic and molecular electronics. By combining complementary experimental techniques and first-principles calculations, we resolve the complex interplay among several interfacial phenomena that collectively determine the electronic structure of the strong electron acceptor(More)
Polymer transistors are being intensively developed for next-generation flexible electronics. Blends comprising a small amount of semiconducting polymer mixed into an insulating polymer matrix have simultaneously shown superior performance and environmental stability in organic field-effect transistors compared with the neat semiconductor. Here we show that(More)
The energy-level alignment at interfaces between three electroactive conjugated organic materials and Au was systematically varied by adjusting the precoverage of the metal substrate with the electron acceptor tetrafluoro-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ). Photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that electron transfer from Au to adsorbed F4-TCNQ was(More)
The interfaces formed between pentacene (PEN) and perfluoropentacene (PFP) molecules and Cu(111) were studied using photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray standing wave (XSW), and scanning tunneling microscopy measurements, in conjunction with theoretical modeling. The average carbon bonding distances for PEN and PFP differ strongly, that is, 2.34 A for PEN(More)
For the prototypical conjugated organic molecules pentacene and perfluoropentacene, we demonstrate that the surface termination of ordered organic thin films with intramolecular polar bonds (e.g., -H versus -F) can be used to tune the ionization energy. The collective electrostatics of these oriented bonds also explains the pronounced orientation dependence(More)
Large π-conjugated molecules, when in contact with a metal surface, usually retain a finite electronic gap and, in this sense, stay semiconducting. In some cases, however, the metallic character of the underlying substrate is seen to extend onto the first molecular layer. Here, we develop a chemical rationale for this intriguing phenomenon. In many reported(More)