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The mutual information between a complex-valued channel input and its complex-valued output is decomposed into four parts based on polar coordinates: an amplitude term, a phase term, and two mixed terms. Numerical results for the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel with various inputs show that, at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the amplitude(More)
Lower bounds on mutual information (MI) of long-haul optical fiber systems for hard-decision and soft-decision decoding are studied. Ready-to-use expressions to calculate the MI are presented. Extensive numerical simulations are used to quantify how changes in the optical transmitter, receiver, and channel affect the achievable transmission rates of the(More)
—We experimentally investigate mutual information and generalized mutual information for coherent optical transmission systems. The impact of the assumed channel distribution on the achievable rate is investigated for distributions in up to four dimensions. Single channel and wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) transmission over transmission links with(More)
—Probabilistic shaping of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is used to enhance the sensitivity of an optical communication system. Sensitivity gains of 0.43 dB and 0.8 dB are demonstrated in back-to-back experiments by shaping of 16QAM and 64QAM, respectively. Further, numerical simulations are used to prove the robustness of probabilistic shaping to a(More)
—Advanced channel decoders rely on soft-decision decoder inputs for which mutual information (MI) is the natural figure of merit. In this paper, we analyze an optical fiber system by evaluating MI as the maximum achievable rate of transmission of such a system. MI is estimated by means of histograms for which the correct bin number is determined in a blind(More)
— In fiber-optic systems with multiple channels or subcarriers, any three channels create new signal components through the nonlinear process of Four-Wave-Mixing (FWM). For the first time, to our best knowledge, we calculate the number of these products for each frequency. The results can be useful for nonlinear system analysis of multiplexed fiber-optic(More)