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The retinal image flow a blowfly experiences in its daily life on the wing is determined by both the structure of the environment and the animal's own movements. To understand the design of visual processing mechanisms, there is thus a need to analyse the performance of neurons under natural operating conditions. To this end, we recorded flight paths of(More)
Male blowflies chase and catch other flies in fast acrobatic flights. To unravel the underlying control system, we presented a black moving sphere instead of a real fly as a pursuit target. By varying the size and speed of the target, we were able to systematically analyse the decisive visual determinants that guide chasing behaviour. Flies pursue targets(More)
Landing is a challenging aspect of flight because, to land safely, speed must be decreased to a value close to zero at touchdown. The mechanisms by which animals achieve this remain unclear. When landing on horizontal surfaces, honey bees control their speed by holding constant the rate of front-to-back image motion (optic flow) generated by the surface as(More)
The behavioural repertoire of male flies includes visually guided chasing after moving targets. The visuomotor control system for these pursuits belongs to the fastest found in the animal kingdom. We simulated a virtual fly, to test whether or not experimentally established hypotheses on the underlying control system are sufficient to explain chasing(More)
We present a small single camera imaging system that provides a continuous 280 degrees field of view (FOV) inspired by the large FOV of insect eyes. This is achieved by combining a curved reflective surface that is machined into acrylic glass with lenses covering the frontal field that otherwise would have been obstructed by the mirror. Based on the work of(More)
Lateralization is a well-described phenomenon in humans and other vertebrates and there are interesting parallels across a variety of different vertebrate species. However, there are only a few studies of lateralization in invertebrates. In a recent report, we showed lateralization of olfactory learning in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). Here, we investigate(More)
Crystals of 50S ribosomal subunits from Haloarcula marismortui diffracting to 2.9 A resolution were grown. Because of their large unit cells and the extremely weak diffracting power, almost all X-ray crystallographic analysis of these crystals must be performed with intense synchrotron radiation. At ambient temperature, all ribosomal crystals decay upon the(More)
Insects such as flies or bees, with their miniature brains, are able to control highly aerobatic flight maneuvres and to solve spatial vision tasks, such as avoiding collisions with obstacles, landing on objects, or even localizing a previously learnt inconspicuous goal on the basis of environmental cues. With regard to solving such spatial tasks, these(More)
As animals travel through the environment, powerful reflexes help stabilize their gaze by actively maintaining head and eyes in a level orientation. Gaze stabilization reduces motion blur and prevents image rotations. It also assists in depth perception based on translational optic flow. Here we describe side-to-side flight manoeuvres in honeybees and(More)