Learn More
We tested whether calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) contributes to synaptic release from rods in mammalian retina. Electron micrographs and immunofluorescent double labeling for the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2) and synaptic ribbon protein, ribeye, showed a close association between ER and synaptic ribbons in mouse rod terminals.(More)
In vision, balance and hearing, sensory receptor cells translate sensory stimuli into electrical signals whose amplitude is graded with stimulus intensity. The output synapses of these sensory neurons must provide fast signaling to follow rapidly changing stimuli while also transmitting graded information covering a wide range of stimulus intensity and must(More)
Retinal horizontal cells (HCs) provide negative feedback to cones, but, largely because annular illumination fails to evoke a depolarizing response in rods, it is widely believed that there is no feedback from HCs to rods. However, feedback from HCs to cones involves small changes in the calcium current (I(Ca)) that do not always generate detectable(More)
Cones release glutamate-filled vesicles continuously in darkness, and changing illumination modulates this release. Because sustained release in darkness is governed by vesicle replenishment rates, we analyzed how cone membrane potential regulates replenishment. Synaptic release from cones was measured by recording postsynaptic currents in Ambystoma(More)
Retinal prosthetic devices are being developed to bypass degenerated retinal photoreceptors by directly activating retinal neurons with electrical stimulation. However, the retinal circuitry that is activated by epiretinal stimulation is not well characterized. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were obtained from ganglion cells in normal and rd mice using(More)
Ca(2+)-loaded calmodulin normally inhibits multiple Ca(2+)-channels upon dangerous elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) and protects cells from Ca(2+)-cytotoxicity, so blocking of calmodulin should theoretically lead to uncontrolled elevation of intracellular Ca(2+). Paradoxically, classical anti-psychotic, anti-calmodulin drugs were noted here to inhibit(More)
Cone photoreceptors and horizontal cells (HCs) have a reciprocal synapse that underlies lateral inhibition and establishes the antagonistic center-surround organization of the visual system. Cones transmit to HCs through an excitatory synapse and HCs feed back to cones through an inhibitory synapse. Here we report that HCs also transmit to cone terminals a(More)
During the formation of neuronal circuits, axon pathfinding decisions specify the location of synapses on the correct brain side and in correct target areas. We investigated a possible link between axon midline crossing and the subsequent development of output synapses formed by these axons. Conditional knockout of Robo3 in the auditory system forced a(More)
Cone light responses are transmitted to postsynaptic neurons by changes in the rate of synaptic vesicle release. Vesicle pool size at the cone synapse constrains the amount of release and can thus shape contrast detection. We measured the number of vesicles in the rapidly releasable and reserve pools at cone ribbon synapses by performing simultaneous whole(More)
We tested whether horizontal cells (HCs) provide feedback that regulates the Ca(2+) current (I(Ca)) of rods in salamander and mouse retinas. In both species, hyperpolarizing HCs by puffing a glutamate antagonist, 6,7-dinitro-quinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX), onto HC processes caused a negative shift in the voltage dependence of rod I(Ca) and increased its peak(More)