Nora M Chapman

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We report the construction of chimeric coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) strains in which sequences of an infectious cDNA copy of a noncardiovirulent CVB3 genome were replaced by the homologous sequences from a cardiovirulent CVB3 genome to identify which of 10 predicted genetic sites determine cardiovirulence. Cardiovirulent phenotype expression was consistently(More)
Primary cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) express the human coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (HCAR). Whereas HCAR expression in HeLa cells was constant with respect to cell density, HCAR expression in HUVEC increased with culture confluence. HCAR expression in HUVEC was not quantitatively altered by infection with(More)
Enteroviral infection of the heart has been noted in a significant proportion of cases of myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. The presence of enterovirus RNA at stages of disease after acute infection and correlation of enterovirus replication with worse clinical outcome suggests continued replication of the virus is involved in the progression of the(More)
To the Editor: During a workshop concerning the histopathological characteristics of insulitis in human type 1 diabetes (fifth annual meeting of the JDRF Network for Pancreatic Organ Donors with Diabetes [nPOD], 10 February 2013, Jacksonville, FL, USA), a consensus opinion was reached on the criteria necessary for the diagnosis of insulitis, and a(More)
Enteroviruses can induce human myocarditis, which can be modeled in mice inoculated with group B coxsackieviruses (CVB) and in which CVB evolve to produce defective, terminally deleted genomes. The 5' non-translated region (NTR) was enzymatically amplified from heart tissue of a fatal case of enterovirus-associated myocarditis in Japan in 2002. While no(More)
A coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) cDNA clone, upon transfection of HeLa cells, produces CVB3 capable of induction of cardiac inflammation in C3H/He mice by day 8 post inoculation (p.i.). Liver and serum are cleared of CVB3 by day 8 p.i., but CVB3 persists in the heart through day 14. The nucleotide sequence and the predicted amino acid sequence of this clone have(More)
The linear, single-stranded enterovirus RNA genome is flanked at either end with a nontranslated region (NTR). By replacing the entire 5' NTR of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) with that from type 1 poliovirus, a progeny virus was obtained following transfection of HeLa cells. The chimeric virus, CPV/49, replicates like the parental CVB3 strain in HeLa cells but(More)
Insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetes mellitus (T1D) onset is mediated by individual human genetics as well as undefined environmental influences such as viral infections. The group B coxsackieviruses (CVB) are commonly named as putative T1D-inducing agents. We studied CVB replication in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice to assess how infection by diverse CVB(More)
Enteroviruses are thought to be etiologic agents in some cases of human myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. Murine models of acute coxsackievirus B3 myocarditis implicate coxsackie B viruses as possible causes of human myocarditis. Indirect evidence implicating enteroviruses as causative agents in human heart disease derives from serologic studies. More(More)