Nora Kretschmer

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BACKGROUND Recent research has begun to examine the neurophysiologic basis of pathological gambling. However, direct evidence of a behavioral deficit and an accompanying neurofunctional deviation in a realistic gambling context such as Black Jack has not yet been reported. METHODS Electroencephalogram was recorded while 20 problem gamblers and 21 control(More)
Recent research has focused on decision-making under risk and its neural bases. Two kinds of bad decisions under risk may be defined: too risky decisions and too cautious decisions. Here we show that suboptimal decisions of both kinds lead to increased activity in the anterior cingulate cortex in a Blackjack gambling task. Moreover, this increased activity(More)
We assessed the influence of the variables outcome potential, feedback valence, magnitude, and probability on the amplitude of the feedback negativity (FN). Outcome potential was defined as the a priori valence of an upcoming feedback, that is, is there a potential win or potential loss? All these variables have been studied previously, although never(More)
Previous research has shown that pathological gamblers show various cognitive distortions, especially in interpreting near losses. Using a modified blackjack task, we investigated the electrophysiological responses to near and full losses in problem gamblers and controls. We assessed the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) of 20 problem gamblers and 21(More)
Rational choice theory predicts that humans always optimize the expected utility of options when making decisions. However, in decision-making games, humans often punish their opponents even when doing so reduces their own reward. We used the Ultimatum and Dictator games to examine the affective correlates of decision-making. We show that the feedback(More)
The cardiotoxin allylamine causes acute myocellular degeneration and necrosis; in a previous ultrastructural study we observed marked mitotic activity in endothelial cells following allylamine. In the present study, we assessed proliferative activity in the heart: groups of male rats were given either a single dose (100 mg/kg) of allylamine, or two doses on(More)
he pathological gambler is a high risk taker. Infrequent wins are accompanied by frequent losses, yet the pathological gambler persists despite negative consequences. In earning theory terms, such persistence may be attributed either o insensitivity to punishment associated with frequent losses or o hypersensitivity to the reward associated with infrequent(More)
The antineoplastic nitrosourea CCNU is a known hepatotoxin which has been shown to cause hyperbilirubinemia and reduction in bile flow. We studied morphological alterations in the common bile duct and interlobular bile ducts at 6, 12, and 24 h in male rats given a single oral dose (50 mg/kg) of CCNU. The portal vein was perfused with 1.0% glutaraldehyde(More)
The antineoplastic nitrosourea CCNU is a known hepatotoxin which has been shown to cause hyperbilirubinemia and reduction in bile flow. We studied morphological alterations in the common bile duct and interlobular bile ducts at 6, 12, and 24 h in male rats given a single oral dose (50 mg/kg) of CCNU. The portal vein was perfused with 1.0% glutaraldehyde(More)
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