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1. Intracellular recordings have been made from over 100 central retinula cells (R7 and R8) in the fliesCalliphora stygia (wild type),Calliphora erythrocephala (chalky) andMusca domestica (white). 2. Spectral sensitivities determined with axial and non-axial illumination (Figs. 2, 3, 7, 9), polarisation sensitivities and their dependence upon stimulus(More)
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Several lines of evidence point to kidney disease as an important complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Kidney function is abnormal in up to 30% of HIV–infected patients, AIDS-related kidney disease has become a relatively common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring dialysis, and kidney disease may be(More)
Kidney function predicts cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, but little is known about the association of changes in estimated GFR (eGFR) with clinical outcomes. We investigated whether 3- and 9-yr changes in eGFR associated with risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) and all-cause mortality among 13,029 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in(More)
To newly identify loci for age at natural menopause, we carried out a meta-analysis of 22 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 38,968 women of European descent, with replication in up to 14,435 women. In addition to four known loci, we identified 13 loci newly associated with age at natural menopause (at P < 5 × 10(-8)). Candidate genes located at(More)
BACKGROUND Plasma triglyceride levels are heritable and are correlated with the risk of coronary heart disease. Sequencing of the protein-coding regions of the human genome (the exome) has the potential to identify rare mutations that have a large effect on phenotype. METHODS We sequenced the protein-coding regions of 18,666 genes in each of 3734(More)
Existing knowledge of genetic variants affecting risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) is largely based on genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis of common SNPs. Leveraging phased haplotypes from the 1000 Genomes Project, we report a GWAS meta-analysis of ∼185,000 CAD cases and controls, interrogating 6.7 million common (minor allele frequency (MAF)(More)
Spirometric measures of lung function are heritable traits that reflect respiratory health and predict morbidity and mortality. We meta-analyzed genome-wide association studies for two clinically important lung-function measures: forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV(1)) and its ratio to forced vital capacity (FEV(1)/FVC), an indicator of(More)
Identification of genetic risk factors for albuminuria may alter strategies for early prevention of CKD progression, particularly among patients with diabetes. Little is known about the influence of common genetic variants on albuminuria in both general and diabetic populations. We performed a meta-analysis of data from 63,153 individuals of European(More)
C-reactive protein (CRP) is a systemic inflammation marker that predicts future cardiovascular risk. CRP levels are higher in African Americans and Hispanic Americans than in European Americans, but the genetic determinants of CRP in these admixed United States minority populations are largely unknown. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of(More)
OBJECTIVE Although variants in the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene are consistently associated with type 2 diabetes, large population-based studies of African Americans are lacking. Moreover, few studies have investigated the effects of TCF7L2 on type 2 diabetes in the context of metabolic risk factors of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND(More)